Indian Geotechnical Journal

, Volume 48, Issue 3, pp 393–404 | Cite as

Characterization of Lime-Treated Bentonite Using Thermogravimetric Analysis for Assessing its Short-Term Strength Behaviour

  • Sandeep Bandipally
  • Chinchu Cherian
  • Dali Naidu Arnepalli
Original Paper


The recent research infers that the detailed characterization of lime-treated soils using analytical techniques enables better understanding of the complex soil–lime interaction mechanisms as well as the pivotal factors influencing the efficacy of lime treatment. In view of this, the present study focuses on evaluating the effects of lime treatment on the strength properties of sodium bentonite clay in terms of the variations in thermal characteristics derived by employing analytical thermogravimetric analysis. This technique is effectively used to monitor the consumption of free lime and evolution of new cementitious hydration products (viz., calcium silicate hydrate and calcium aluminate hydrate), as well as detrimental lime carbonation phenomenon occurring in the sodium bentonite-lime composite during short-term curing. Based on the comparative evaluation of untreated and lime-treated sodium bentonite, variations in the weight loss corresponding to thermal decomposition of different chemical phases are estimated. The additional inferences from X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses substantiated the interpretations of thermogravimetric results regarding the lime stabilization mechanisms and consequent strength evolution in sodium bentonite-lime composites. Thus, the present study demonstrates that the comprehensive analysis of thermogravimetric results enables reliable interpretation of the soil–lime interaction mechanisms and the evolution of strength during curing.


Lime stabilization Thermogravimetry Pozzolanic reaction Hydration products X-ray diffraction Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy 



Attenuated total reflectance


American society for testing and materials


Calcium aluminate hydrate


Calcium aluminate silicate hydrate


Cation exchange capacity


Clay with high plasticity


Calcium silicate hydrate


Differential scanning calorimetry


Derivative thermogravimetry


Deuterated triglycine sulfate


Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy


International centre for diffraction data




Loss on ignition


Sodium bentonite


Nuclear magnetic resonance


Optimum lime content


Optimum lime content as per Eades and Grim pH test


Optimum lime content as per 28-day unconfined compressive strength


Specific surface area


Sesqui-oxide ratio




Thermo gravimetric analysis


Unconfined compressive strength


Unconfined compressive strength after 28-day curing


X-ray diffraction


X-ray fluorescence



The authors are grateful to CECRI-CSIR, Karaikudi, Tamilnadu which supported the X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis for determining chemical composition of materials in this study.


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Copyright information

© Indian Geotechnical Society 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology MadrasChennaiIndia

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