Characterization of Lime-Treated Bentonite Using Thermogravimetric Analysis for Assessing its Short-Term Strength Behaviour

  • Sandeep Bandipally
  • Chinchu Cherian
  • Dali Naidu Arnepalli
Original Paper
  • 15 Downloads

Abstract

The recent research infers that the detailed characterization of lime-treated soils using analytical techniques enables better understanding of the complex soil–lime interaction mechanisms as well as the pivotal factors influencing the efficacy of lime treatment. In view of this, the present study focuses on evaluating the effects of lime treatment on the strength properties of sodium bentonite clay in terms of the variations in thermal characteristics derived by employing analytical thermogravimetric analysis. This technique is effectively used to monitor the consumption of free lime and evolution of new cementitious hydration products (viz., calcium silicate hydrate and calcium aluminate hydrate), as well as detrimental lime carbonation phenomenon occurring in the sodium bentonite-lime composite during short-term curing. Based on the comparative evaluation of untreated and lime-treated sodium bentonite, variations in the weight loss corresponding to thermal decomposition of different chemical phases are estimated. The additional inferences from X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses substantiated the interpretations of thermogravimetric results regarding the lime stabilization mechanisms and consequent strength evolution in sodium bentonite-lime composites. Thus, the present study demonstrates that the comprehensive analysis of thermogravimetric results enables reliable interpretation of the soil–lime interaction mechanisms and the evolution of strength during curing.

Keywords

Lime stabilization Thermogravimetry Pozzolanic reaction Hydration products X-ray diffraction Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy 

Abbreviations

ATR

Attenuated total reflectance

ASTM

American society for testing and materials

CAH

Calcium aluminate hydrate

CASH

Calcium aluminate silicate hydrate

CEC

Cation exchange capacity

CH

Clay with high plasticity

CSH

Calcium silicate hydrate

DSC

Differential scanning calorimetry

DTG

Derivative thermogravimetry

DTGS

Deuterated triglycine sulfate

FTIR

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

ICDD

International centre for diffraction data

IR

Infrared

LOI

Loss on ignition

NBT

Sodium bentonite

NMR

Nuclear magnetic resonance

OLC

Optimum lime content

OLCpH

Optimum lime content as per Eades and Grim pH test

OLCUCS

Optimum lime content as per 28-day unconfined compressive strength

SSA

Specific surface area

SSR

Sesqui-oxide ratio

TG

Thermogravimetry

TGA

Thermo gravimetric analysis

UCS

Unconfined compressive strength

UCS28-day

Unconfined compressive strength after 28-day curing

XRD

X-ray diffraction

XRF

X-ray fluorescence

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to CECRI-CSIR, Karaikudi, Tamilnadu which supported the X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis for determining chemical composition of materials in this study.

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© Indian Geotechnical Society 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology MadrasChennaiIndia

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