Skip to main content

Sustainable Utilization of Scrap Tire Derived Geomaterials for Geotechnical Applications

Abstract

Use of scrap tire derived (STD) geomaterials in geotechnical engineering applications has received growing interest to prevent creation of wastes and conserve natural resources towards achieving sustainability. STD geomaterials and their mixtures with soils are being used in highway embankments, retaining walls, landfills and other applications as lightweight fill, backfill, compressible inclusion, vibration absorber, and drainage material. The use of STD geomaterials in these applications has been affirmed by characterization of the engineering properties based on laboratory tests and performance assessment based on physical model studies. This paper provides a review of engineering properties of STD geomaterials and their mixtures with soil (predominantly sand) based on published studies. Further, laboratory model and field studies on typical applications of STD geomaterials/mixtures such as retaining walls, foundations, embankments, and landfills are discussed. Overall, STD geomaterial alone or sand mixed with optimal STD content of 30–40% by weight has been shown to be effective for geoengineering applications.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1

(Modified after Hazarika and Yasuhara [9])

Fig. 2

(After Kim and Santamarina [43])

Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5

(after Tweedie et al. [56])

Fig. 6

(after Humphrey et al. [13])

Fig. 7

adopted by Hazarika et al. [58]

Fig. 8

(after Hazarika et al. [58])

Fig. 9
Fig. 10

(after Reddy and Krishna [29])

Fig. 11

(after Reddy et al. [21])

Fig. 12

(after Humphrey et al. [13])

Fig. 13

(after Hazarika et al. [32])

Fig. 14

(after Hazarika et al. [32])

Fig. 15

(after Reddy and Krishna [66])

Fig. 16

(after Yoon et al. [18])

Fig. 17

(after Yoon et al. [18])

Fig. 18

(after Tsang [8])

Fig. 19

(after Bandyopadhyay et al. [70])

References

  1. Ahn S II, Cheng L (2014) Tire derived aggregate for retaining wall backfill under earthquake loading. Constr Build Mater 57:105–116

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. RMA (2016) U.S. scrap tire management summary. Rubber manufacturersassociation. https://rma.org/sites/default/files/RMA_scraptire_summ_2015.pdf; www.rma.org

  3. Salgado R, Yoon S, Siddiki NZ (2003) Construction of tire shreds test embankment. Publication FHWA/IN/JTRP-2002/35. Joint Transportation Research Program, Indiana Department of Transportation and Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, 2003. doi:10.5703/1288284313165

  4. Hazarika H, Yasuhara K, Karmokar AK, Kikuchi Y, Mitarai Y (2010) Multifaceted potentials of tire derived three dimensional geosynthetics in geotechnical application and their evaluation. Geotext Geomembr 28(3):303–315

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Hazarika H, Kikuchi Y, Otani J (2012) Evaluation of tyre products as ground improving geomaterials. Ground Improv Inst Civ Eng 165(GI4):267–282

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Rao GV, Dutta RK (2006) Compressibility and strength behaviour of sand–tyre chips mixtures. Geotech Geol Eng 24(3):711–724

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Kim YT, Kang HS (2013) Effects of rubber and bottom ash inclusion on geotechnical characteristics of composite geomaterial. Mar Georesour Geotechnol 31(1):71–85

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Tsang HH (2008) Seismic isolation by rubber-soil mixtures for developing countries. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 37(2):283–303

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Hazarika H, Yasuhara K (eds) (2007) Scrap tire derived geomaterials - Opportunities and challenges. Taylor & Francis Group, London

  10. ASTM D6270 (2012) Standard practice for use of scrap tires in civil engineering applications. West Conshohocken, PA

  11. Cecich V, Gonzales L, Hoisaeter A, Williams J, Reddy K (1996) Use of shredded tires as lightweight backfill material for retaining structures. Waste Manag Res 14(5):433–451

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Humphery DN, Manion WP (1992) Properties of tire chips for lightweight fill. In: Proceedings of the conference on grouting, soil improvement, and geosynthetics, ASCE, New Orleans, Louisiana, vol 2, pp 1344–1355

  13. Humphrey D, Cosgrove T, Whetten NL, Herbert R (1997) Tire chips reduce lateral earth pressure against the walls of a rigid frame bridge. In: Seminar on rehabilitation and upgrades in civil and environmental engineering, ASCE. https://rma.org/sites/default/files/CIV-044-Tire_Chips_Reduced_Lateral_Earth_Pressure_Against_The_Walls_Of_A_Rigid_Frame_Bridge.pdf

  14. Humphrey DN, Whetten N, Weaver J, Recker K, Cosgrove TA (1998) Tire shreds as lightweight fill for embankments and retaining walls. In: Proceedings of the conference on recycled materials in geotechnical applications, ASCE, p 15

  15. Pando M, Garcia M (2011) Tire derived aggregates as a sustainable backfill or inclusion for retaining walls and bridge abutments. Presentation at the sixth Geo3T2 Conf. and Expo, Raleigh, NC

  16. Reddy KR, Saichek RE (1998) Assessment of damage to geomembrane liners by shredded scrap tires. Geotech Test J 21(4):307–316

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Reddy KR, Marella A, Ala P (2002) Transmissivity behavior of shredded scrap tire drainage layer in landfill covers system. In: Proceedings of the 6th international symposium on environmental geotechnology and global sustainable development, Seoul, Korea, pp 277–285

  18. Yoon S, Zhang J, Prezzi M, Koh T (2005). Construction and performance of a tire shred–sand demonstration embankment. In: Proceedings of the 20th international conference on solid waste technology and management, Philadelphia, PA, April, pp 237–246

  19. Ahmed I (1993) Laboratory study on properties of rubber-soils, Ph.D. thesis, School of Civil Engineering, Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, I. N

  20. Balunaini U, Yoon S, Prezzi M, Salgado R (2009) Tire shred backfill in mechanically stabilized earth wall applications. FHWA/IN/JTRP-2008/17. West Lafayette, Indiana

  21. Reddy SB, Krishna AM, Dasaka SM (2016) Seismic resilience of retaining walls backfilled with sand–tire chips mixtures. Jpn Geotech Soc Spec Publ 3(2):20–23

    Google Scholar 

  22. Shrestha S, Ravichandran N, Raveendra M, Attenhofer JA (2016) Design and analysis of retaining wall backfilled with shredded tire and subjected to earthquake shaking. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 90:227–239

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Soganci AS (2015) Strength characteristics of tire-sand mixtures. Soil Mech Found Eng 51(6):306–309

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Yang S, Lohnes RA, Kjartanson BH (2002) Mechanical properties of shredded tires. Geotech Test J 25(1):44–52

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Yoon S, Prezzi M, Siddiki NZ, Kim B (2006) Construction of a test embankment using a sand–tire shred mixture as fill material. Waste Manag 26(9):1033–1044

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Zornberg JG, Cabral AR, Viratjandra C (2004) Behaviour of tire shred–sand mixtures. Can Geotech J 41:227–241

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Reddy KR, Marella A (2001) Properties of different size scrap tire shreds: implications on using as drainage material in landfill cover systems. In: Seventeenth international conference on solid waste technology and management, Philadelphia, PA, USA

  28. Edil TB, Bosscher PJ (1994) Engineering properties of tire chips and soil mixtures. Geotech Test J 17(4):453–464

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Reddy SB, Krishna AM (2015) Recycled tire chips mixed with sand as lightweight backfill material in retaining wall applications: an experimental investigation. Int J Geosynth Ground Eng. doi:10.1007/s40891-015-0036-0

    Google Scholar 

  30. Oikonomoun N, Mavridou S (2008) The use of waste tyre rubber in civil engineering works, chapter 9, sustainability of construction materials Edited by Jamal M. Khatib, CRC

  31. Tweedie JJ, Humphrey DN, Sandford TC (1998b) Tire chips as lightweight backfill for retaining walls-phase 11, A Study for the New England Transportation Consortium, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Maine, Orono, Maine. http://www.uvm.edu/~transctr/pdf/netc/netcr08.pdf

  32. Hazarika H, Kohama E, Sugano T (2008) Underwater shake table tests on waterfront structures protected with tire chips cushion. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng 134(12):1706–1719

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Lawrence BK, Chen LH, Humphrey DN (1998) Use of tire chip/soil mixtures to limit frost heave and pavement damage of paved roads. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Maine, Orono

    Google Scholar 

  34. Bernal A, Lovell CW, Salgado R (1996) Laboratory study on the use of tire shreds and rubber–sand in backfills and reinforced soil applications, FHWA/IN/JHRP-96/12. Purdue University, West Lafayette

    Book  Google Scholar 

  35. Masad E, Taha R, Ho C, Papagiannakis T (1996) Engineering properties of tire/soil mixtures as a lightweight fill material. Geotech Test J 19:297–304

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Xiao M, Bowmen J, Graham M, Larralde J (2012) Comparison of seismic responses of geosynthetically reinforced walls with tire-derived aggregates and granular backfills. J Mater Civ Eng 24:1368–1377

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Reddy SB, Kumar DP, Krishna AM (2016) Evaluation of optimum mixing ratio of sand–tire chips mixture for geo-engineering applications. J Mater Civ Eng 28(2)

  38. Attom MF (2006) The use of shredded waste tires to improve the geotechnical engineering properties of sands. Environ Geol 49(4):497–503

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Balunaini U, Mohan VKD, Prezzi M, Salgado R (2014) Shear strength of tyre chip–sand and tyre shred–sand mixtures. Proc Inst Civ Eng Geotech Eng 167(6):585–595

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Foose GJ, Benson CH, Bosscher PJ (1996) Sand with shredded waste tires. Geotech Test J GTJODJ 122(9):760–767

    Google Scholar 

  41. Ghazavi M, Sakhi MA (2005) Influence of optimized tire shreds on shear strength parameters of sand. Int J Geomech 5(1):58–65

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Ghazavi M, Ghaffari J, Farshadfar A (2011) Experimental determination of waste tire chip-sand-geogrid interface parameters using large direct shear tests. In: 5th Symposium on advances in science and technology

  43. Kim HK, Santamarina JC (2008) Sand–rubber mixtures (large rubber chips). J Can Geotech 45(10):1457–1466

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Livingston B, Ravichandran N (2017) Properties of shredded roof membrane–sand mixture and its application as retaining wall backfill under static and earthquake loads. Recycling 2(2):1–14

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Mashiri MS, Vinod JS, Sheikh MN, Tsang H (2015) Shear strength and dilatancy behaviour of sand–tyre chip mixtures. Soils Found 55(3):517–528

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Ravichandran N, Huggins L (2014) Applicability of shredded tire chips as a lightweight retaining wall backfill in seismic regions. In: Proceedings of geo-congress (GSP 234), ASCE, Atlanta

  47. Sheikh MN, Mashiri MS, Vinod JS, Tsang HH (2013) Shear and compressibility behavior of sand-tire crumb mixtures. J Mater Civ Eng 25(10):1366–1374

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Tatlisoz N, Edil TB, Benson C (1998) Interaction between reinforcing geosynthetics and soil–tire chip mixtures. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng 124(11):1109–1119

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Tsai WT (2015) The utilization of scrap tires as an energy source and its environmental benefit analysis in Taiwan. Energy Sour B 10(4):333–339. doi:10.1080/15567249.2010.551825

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Cetina H, Fenerb M, Gunaydin M (2006) Geotechnical properties of tire-cohesive clayey soil mixtures as a fill material. Eng Geol 88:110–120

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Lee JH, Salgado R, Bernal A, Lovell CW (1999) Shredded tires and rubber–sand as lightweight backfill. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng 125(2):132–141

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Lee C, Truong QH, Lee JS, Lee W (2010) Characteristics of rubber–sand particle mixtures according to size ratio. J Mater Civ Eng 22(4):323–331

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Reddy KR, Stark TD, Marella A (2008) Clogging potential of tire shred-drainage layer in landfill cover systems. Int J Geotech Eng 2(4):407–418

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Reddy KR, Stark T, Marella A (2010) Beneficial use of shredded tires as drainage material in cover systems for abandoned landfills. Pract Period Hazard Toxic Radioact Waste Manag 14(1):47–60

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Tweedie JJ, Humphrey DN, Sandford TC (1998) Tire shreds as retaining wall backfill, active conditions. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng 124(11):1061–1070

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Tweedie JJ, Humphrey DN, Sandford TC (1998) Tire chips as lightweight backfill for retaining walls-phase 11, A Study for the New England Transportation Consortium, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Maine, Orono, Maine. http://www.uvm.edu/~transctr/pdf/netc/netcr08.pdf

  57. Lee HJ, Roh HS (2006) The use of recycled tire chips to minimize dynamic earth pressure during compaction of backfill. Constr Build Mater 21(5):1016–1026

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. Hazarika H, Yasuhara K, Karmokar AK, Mitarai Y (2008) Shaking table test on liquefaction prevention using tire chips and sand mixture. In: Hazarika H, Yasuhara K (eds) Scrap tire derived geomaterials - opportunities and challenges. Taylor & Francis Group, London, pp 215–222

  59. Hazarika H, Yasuhara K, Hyodo M (2009) Sustainable material recycling of scrap tires-few innovative applications in Japan—Proceedings of the international joint symposium on geodisaster prevention and geoenvironment in Asia (JS-Fukuoka 2009), Fukuoka, Japan, pp 179–184

  60. Hazarika H (2013) Paradigm shift in earthquake Induced geohazards mitigation-emergence of nondilatant geomaterials. In: Keynote lecture, proceedings of the annual conference of Indian Geotechnical Society (IGC Roorkee), India, CD-ROM

  61. Hazarika H, Yasuhara K (2015) Sustainable and smart materials in geotechnical constructions. Discovery 42(195):233–244 (Paper no.A58)

    Google Scholar 

  62. Dammala P, Reddy SB, Krishna AM (2015) Experimental investigation of applicability of sand tire chip mixtures as retaining wall backfill. IFCEE, ASCE Geotechnical special publication, pp 1420–1429. doi:10.1061/9780784479087.128

  63. Reddy SB, Krishna AM, Arun ChB (2017b) Feasibility study of retaining walls backfilled with sand–tire chips mixtures. In: Sivakumar Babu GL et al. (eds) Geoenvironmental practices and sustainability, developments in geotechnical engineering. doi:10.1007/978-981-10-4077-1_25

  64. Hazarika H, Okuzono S (2004) Modeling the behavior of a hybrid interactive system involving soil, structure and EPS geofoam. Soils Found 44(5):149–162

    Article  Google Scholar 

  65. Kaneda K, Hazarika H, Yamazaki H (2008) The numerical simulation of earth pressure reduction using tire chips in backfill. In: Hazarika H, Yasuhara K (eds) Scrap tire derived geomaterials—opportunities and challenges. Taylor & Francis Group, London, pp 245–251

    Google Scholar 

  66. Reddy SB, Krishna AM (2017) Tyre chips as compressible inclusions in earth retaining walls. Proc Inst Civ Eng Ground Improv. doi:10.1680/jgrim.16.00034

    Google Scholar 

  67. Hataf N, Rahimi MM (2006) Experimental investigation of bearing capacity of sand reinforced with randomly distributed tire shreds. Constr Build Mater 20:910–916

    Article  Google Scholar 

  68. Salgado R, Prezzi M (2004) Construction of a tyre-shreds test embankment. Proc Inst Civ Eng Eng Sustain 157(2):65–66

    Article  Google Scholar 

  69. Hazarika H, Kohama E, Suzuki H, Sugano T (2006) Enhancement of earthquake resistance of structures using tire chips as compressible inclusion. Technical Report of the Port and Airport Research Institute, Yokosuka, Japan 45(1):1–28

  70. Bandyopadhyay S, Sengupta A, Reddy GR (2015) Performance of sand and shredded rubber tire mixture as a natural base isolator for earthquake protection. Earthq Eng Eng Vib 14(4):683–693

    Article  Google Scholar 

  71. Alqaissi (2012) Behavior of strip footings resting on sand mixed with tire-chips. J Eng Dev 16 (4). ISSN: 1813–7822

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to S. Bali Reddy.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Reddy, S.B., Krishna, A.M. & Reddy, K.R. Sustainable Utilization of Scrap Tire Derived Geomaterials for Geotechnical Applications. Indian Geotech J 48, 251–266 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40098-017-0273-3

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40098-017-0273-3

Keywords

  • Scrap tire derived (STD) geomaterials
  • Retaining wall
  • Foundation
  • Embankment
  • Drainage layer