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Sustainable Utilization of Scrap Tire Derived Geomaterials for Geotechnical Applications


Use of scrap tire derived (STD) geomaterials in geotechnical engineering applications has received growing interest to prevent creation of wastes and conserve natural resources towards achieving sustainability. STD geomaterials and their mixtures with soils are being used in highway embankments, retaining walls, landfills and other applications as lightweight fill, backfill, compressible inclusion, vibration absorber, and drainage material. The use of STD geomaterials in these applications has been affirmed by characterization of the engineering properties based on laboratory tests and performance assessment based on physical model studies. This paper provides a review of engineering properties of STD geomaterials and their mixtures with soil (predominantly sand) based on published studies. Further, laboratory model and field studies on typical applications of STD geomaterials/mixtures such as retaining walls, foundations, embankments, and landfills are discussed. Overall, STD geomaterial alone or sand mixed with optimal STD content of 30–40% by weight has been shown to be effective for geoengineering applications.

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Fig. 1

(Modified after Hazarika and Yasuhara [9])

Fig. 2

(After Kim and Santamarina [43])

Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5

(after Tweedie et al. [56])

Fig. 6

(after Humphrey et al. [13])

Fig. 7

adopted by Hazarika et al. [58]

Fig. 8

(after Hazarika et al. [58])

Fig. 9
Fig. 10

(after Reddy and Krishna [29])

Fig. 11

(after Reddy et al. [21])

Fig. 12

(after Humphrey et al. [13])

Fig. 13

(after Hazarika et al. [32])

Fig. 14

(after Hazarika et al. [32])

Fig. 15

(after Reddy and Krishna [66])

Fig. 16

(after Yoon et al. [18])

Fig. 17

(after Yoon et al. [18])

Fig. 18

(after Tsang [8])

Fig. 19

(after Bandyopadhyay et al. [70])


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Correspondence to S. Bali Reddy.

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Reddy, S.B., Krishna, A.M. & Reddy, K.R. Sustainable Utilization of Scrap Tire Derived Geomaterials for Geotechnical Applications. Indian Geotech J 48, 251–266 (2018).

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  • Scrap tire derived (STD) geomaterials
  • Retaining wall
  • Foundation
  • Embankment
  • Drainage layer