Single-step fabrication of Na-TUD-1 novel heterogeneous base nano-catalyst for Knoevenagel condensation reaction


This research, for the first time, reports the design and development of a heterogeneous nano-catalyst based on sodium ions (Na+) incorporation in Technical University of Delft (TUD-1) mesoporous silica for Knoevenagel condensation reaction. Facile one-step fabrication of Na-TUD-1 nano-catalysts (varying Si/Na ratio as 100–5) was demonstrated using the sol–gel route. The catalytic performance of Na-TUD-1 was evaluated as a base heterogeneous catalyst in Knoevenagel condensation reaction, which took place under conventional and microwave irradiations conditions using ethanol as a solvent. Na-TUD-1 exhibited superior catalytic activity in comparison to available homogeneous base catalysts such as sodium ethoxide. The Na-TUD-1 nano-catalyst demonstrated identical performance till the fourth run along with high stability and negligible leaching of Na. Moreover, the use of microwave heating reduced the reaction time from 240 to 20 min only with a TOF of 0.58 min−1. Such excellent performance of Na-TUD-1 heterogeneous nano-catalysts will certainly increase its industrial acceptability to achieve affordable and efficient waste-effluent treatments.

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B. M. Al-Shehri thanks Chemistry Department, College of Science, Umm Al-Qura University for personal fellowship. The authors also acknowledge the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Khalid University for funding this work through the research group program under Grant number R.G.P.1/172/41.

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Conceptualization analysis, synthesis, materials characterization was performed by BAS and MS; supervision and manuscript writing AK and MRS; manuscript editing and data analysis by MSH and MS. All authors are agreed published as proposed research.

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Correspondence to Ajeet Kaushik or Mohamed S. Hamdy.

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Al-Shehri, B.M., Shabaan, M.R., Shkir, M. et al. Single-step fabrication of Na-TUD-1 novel heterogeneous base nano-catalyst for Knoevenagel condensation reaction. J Nanostruct Chem (2020).

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  • Na-TUD-1
  • Knoevenagel condensation
  • Microwave
  • Conventional heating
  • Base catalyst