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Effect of fuel injection timing on CI engine fuelled with neem biodiesel blends–a comparative study of experimental and numerical simulation


The present work illuminates numerical evaluation of neem biodiesel’s (NBD) potentiality for energizing the modern diesel engines. The blends were prepared of NBD and diesel and were mixed in various volumetric percentages (20%, 50%, and 100%). The paper explains the effect of injection timing and blends ratios on the performance and emission of a compression ignition engine. The results were obtained from Diesel-RK software were validated experimentally. The simulation study performed on the software comprehends the fuel spray characteristics at varying fuel injection timings. The simulation study flag-posts that fuel injection at 19 deg. bTDC provided a considerable reduction in Nitrogen emissions and NBD20 blend as the best choice when performance and emission parameters were considered.

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Brake thermal efficiency


Brake specific fuel consumption


Neem biodiesel


Exhaust gas temperature


Nitrogen oxides


Hartidge smoke units


Sauter mean diameter


Fuel injection timing


Fuel spray velocity (m/s)

VO :

Initial fuel spray velocity (m/s)


Spray length (meter)

Xm :

Fuel penetration distance (meter)


Travel time for the fuel to reach distance x from injector nozzle


Current soot concentration in cylinder


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Correspondence to Campli Srinidhi.

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Srinidhi, C., Kshirsagar, P., Joshi, M. et al. Effect of fuel injection timing on CI engine fuelled with neem biodiesel blends–a comparative study of experimental and numerical simulation. Int J Energy Environ Eng (2021).

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  • Neem biodiesel
  • Fuel injection timing
  • Performance
  • Emissions