Skip to main content

Effect of fuel injection timing on CI engine fuelled with neem biodiesel blends–a comparative study of experimental and numerical simulation

Abstract

The present work illuminates numerical evaluation of neem biodiesel’s (NBD) potentiality for energizing the modern diesel engines. The blends were prepared of NBD and diesel and were mixed in various volumetric percentages (20%, 50%, and 100%). The paper explains the effect of injection timing and blends ratios on the performance and emission of a compression ignition engine. The results were obtained from Diesel-RK software were validated experimentally. The simulation study performed on the software comprehends the fuel spray characteristics at varying fuel injection timings. The simulation study flag-posts that fuel injection at 19 deg. bTDC provided a considerable reduction in Nitrogen emissions and NBD20 blend as the best choice when performance and emission parameters were considered.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12

Abbreviations

BTHE:

Brake thermal efficiency

BSFC:

Brake specific fuel consumption

NBD:

Neem biodiesel

EGT:

Exhaust gas temperature

NOx:

Nitrogen oxides

HSU:

Hartidge smoke units

SMD:

Sauter mean diameter

FIT:

Fuel injection timing

V:

Fuel spray velocity (m/s)

VO :

Initial fuel spray velocity (m/s)

X:

Spray length (meter)

Xm :

Fuel penetration distance (meter)

t:

Travel time for the fuel to reach distance x from injector nozzle

T:

Current soot concentration in cylinder

References

  1. 1.

    Kuleshov, A.: Model for predicting air-fuel mixing, combustion and emissions in DI diesel engines over the whole operating range, SAE paper No. 2005-01-2119. (2005)

  2. 2.

    Srinidhi, C., Madhusudhan, A., Channapattana, S.V.: Effect of NiO nanoparticles on performance and emission characteristics at various injection timings using biodiesel-diesel blends. Fuel 235, 185–193 (2019)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Srinidhi, C., Madhusudhan, A., Channapattana, S.V.: Parametric studies of CI engine at various injection strategies using biodiesel blended nanoparticles as fuel. Int. J. Ambient Energy (2019). https://doi.org/10.1080/01430750.2019.1630303

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Campli, S., Acharya, M., Channapattana, S.V., Pawar, A.A., Gawali, S.V., Hole, J.: The effect of nickel oxide nano-additives in Azadirachta indica biodiesel-diesel blend on engine performance and emission characteristics by varying compression ratio. Environ. Prog. Sustainable Energy 40, e13514 (2021)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Arrègle, J., Pastor, J.V., & Ruiz S.: “The influence of injection parameters on diesel spray characteristics”. SAE technical paper. 1999-01-0200. (1999)

  6. 6.

    Srinidhi, C., Madhusudhan, A., Channapattana, S.V., Gawali, S.V.: Comparative investigation of performance and emission features of methanol, ethanol, DEE, and nanoparticles as fuel additives in diesel-biodiesel blends. Heat Transf. 50, 2624–2642 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1002/htj.21997

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Srinidhi, C., Madhusudhan, A.: A diesel engine performance investigation fuelled with nickel oxide nano fuel-methyl ester. Int. J. Renew. Energy Res. 7(2), 676–681 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Channapattana, S.V., Pawar, A.A., Kamble, P.G.: Investigation of DI-CI four-stroke VCR engine at different fuel injection timing using bio-fuel derived from non-edible oil source as a fuel. Biofuels (2016). https://doi.org/10.1080/17597269.2016.1187540

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Agarwal, A.K., Srivastava, D.K., Dhar, A., Maurya, R.K., Shukla, P.C., Singh, A.P.: Effect of fuel injection timing and pressure on combustion, emissions and performance characteristics of a single-cylinder diesel engine. Fuel 111, 374–383 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2013.03.016

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Oner, C., Altun, Ş: Biodiesel production from inedible animal tallow and an experimental investigation of its use as an alternative fuel in a direct injection diesel engine. Appl. Energy 86(10), 2114–2120 (2009)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Ejim, C., Fleck, B., Amirfazli, A.J.F.: Analytical study for atomization of biodiesels and their blends in a typical injector: surface tension and viscosity effects. Fuel 86(10–11), 1534–1544 (2007)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Venu, H., Subramani, L., Raju, V.D.: Emission reduction in a DI diesel engine using exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) of palm biodiesel blended with TiO2 nano additives. Renew. Energy 140, 245–263 (2019)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Delacourt, E., Desmet, B., Besson, B.: Characterisation of very high-pressure diesel sprays using digital imaging techniques. Fuel 84(7–8), 859–867 (2005)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Al-Dawody, M.F.: Theoretical study for the influence of biodiesel addition on the combustion, performance and emissions parameters of single-cylinder diesel engine. J. Babylon Univ. Eng. Sci. 25(5), 1830–1839 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Al-Dawody, M.F., Jazie, A.A., Abbas, H.A.: Experimental and simulation study for the effect of waste cooking oil methyl ester blended with diesel fuel on the performance and emissions of diesel engine. Alex. Eng. J. 58(1), 9–17 (2019)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Mahkamov, K., Kuleshov, A.: Multi-zone diesel fuel spray combustion model for the simulation of a diesel engine running on biofuel. Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part A J. Power Energy 222(3), 309–321 (2008)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Deng, J., Li, C., Hu, Z., Wu, Z., & Li, L.: “Spray characteristics of biodiesel and diesel fuels under high injection pressure with a common rail system”. SAE technical paper. 2010-01-2268. (2010)

  18. 18.

    Grimaldi, C., & Postrioti, L.: “Experimental comparison between conventional and bio-derived fuels sprays from a common rail injection system.” SAE technical paper 2000-01-1252, 1501-1513 (2000)

  19. 19.

    Lee, C.S., Park, S.W., Kwon, S.I.: An experimental study on the atomization and combustion characteristics of biodiesel-blended fuels. Energy Fuels 19(5), 2201–2208 (2005)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Lacour, S., Raoult, F., Tinet, C., Fournaison, L., Delahaye, A., Trinquet, F.: A modal analysis of the size distribution for an hollow-cone spray in cross-flow. Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 104, 164–174 (2019)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Zhao, X., Han, X., He, C., Tan, E.: Experimental study on spray characteristics of biodiesel oil. Chin. Intern. Combust. Engine. Eng. 1, 9–16 (2008)

    Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Singh, A., Sinha, S., Choudhary, A.K., Panchal, H., Elkelawy, M., Sadasivuni, K.K.: Optimization of performance and emission characteristics of CI engine fueled with jatropha biodiesel produced using a heterogeneous catalyst (CaO). Fuel 280, 1186–11 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2020.118611

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Hiroyasu, H., Kadota, T., Arai, M.: Supplementary comments: fuel spray characterization in diesel engines, pp. 369–408. Plenum Press, New York (1980)

    Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Jung, D., & Assanis, D.: “Multi-zone DI diesel spray combustion model for cycle simulation studies of engine performance and emissions.” SAE paper No. 2001-01-1246, 1510-1532. (2001)

  25. 25.

    Al-Dawody, M.F., Bhatti, S.K.: Optimization strategies to reduce the biodiesel NOx effect in diesel engine with experimental verification. Energy Convers. Manag. 68, 96–104 (2013)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Larmi, M., Rantanen, P., Tiainen, J., Kiijärvi, J., Tanner, F.X., and Stalsberg-Zarling, K.: “Simulation of non-evaporating diesel sprays and verification with experimental data”. SAE technical paper. 2002-01-0946 (2002)

  27. 27.

    Gao, Y., Deng, J., Li, C., Dang, F., Liao, Z., Wu, Z., Li, L.: Experimental study of the spray characteristics of biodiesel based on inedible oil. Biotechnol. Adv. 27(5), 616–624 (2009)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Bracco, F.J.S.t.: “Modeling of engine sprays.” SAE Paper No. 850394, 144–167 (1981)

  29. 29.

    Srinidhi, C., Madhusudhan, A., Channapattana, S.V., Gawali, S.V., Aithal, K.: RSM based parameter optimization of CI engine fuelled with nickel oxide dosed Azadirachta indica methyl ester. Energy 234, 121282 (2021)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Alkidas, A.: “Relationship between smoke measurements and particulate measurements”. SAE Technical paper 840412. (1984)

  31. 31.

    Mohan, B., Yang, W., Tay, K.L., Yu, W.: Macroscopic spray characterization under high ambient density conditions. Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 59, 109–117 (2014)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Jia, T.-M., Li, G.-X., Yu, Y.-S., Xu, Y.-J.J.E.T., Science, F.: Effects of ultra-high injection pressure on penetration characteristics of diesel spray and a two-mode leading edge shock wave. Exp. Thermal Fluid Sci. 79, 126–133 (2016)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Nakagawa, H., Oda, Y., Kato, S., Nakashima, M., & Tateishi, M.: Fuel spray motion inside injection combustion system for diesel engines. Proceedings of the international symposium COMODIA, 281–286 (1990)

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Campli Srinidhi.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Srinidhi, C., Kshirsagar, P., Joshi, M. et al. Effect of fuel injection timing on CI engine fuelled with neem biodiesel blends–a comparative study of experimental and numerical simulation. Int J Energy Environ Eng (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40095-021-00429-6

Download citation

Keywords

  • Neem biodiesel
  • Fuel injection timing
  • Performance
  • Emissions