Skip to main content

Sustainable technical design and economic–environmental analysis of SMART solar street lighting system in Giza City, Egypt

We’re sorry, something doesn't seem to be working properly.

Please try refreshing the page. If that doesn't work, please contact support so we can address the problem.


This paper introduces a study on using solar energy instead of fossil fuel energy to light the dark and gloomy streets. An intelligent smart street light system is implemented and the feasibility of SSL is evaluated using a case study of a remotely street located Real Estate Developer of Cairo University in Bolak Al Dakrour district in the state of Giza, Egypt. The main objective is to investigate the technical design feasibility of standalone solar systems, to evaluate cost–benefit analysis of solar LED luminaries compared to convention electrical luminaries for the outdoor street lighting system and to determine the sizing of system components as well as simulation of lighting arrangements is performed using DIALUX 4.12 software package. Results show that the integrated solar street light including motion sensor is used here in this study including LAMP of 15 W LED PHILIPS, 45 W Monocrystalline panel, 12 V 37.5 AH Lithium-ion battery and 10 A 12 V charge controller. This proposed system is designed according to 12 operation hours: 4 h with 100% efficiency, 4 h 75% with efficiency and 4 h with 50% efficiency. Luminaries' arrangements are two sides offset, pole height is 7 m and pole distance 32 m. It is found the cost benefit of using solar LED luminaries against normal electric luminaries reaches about 62% and payback period is 2 years. So, the proposed solar-powered LED street lighting system is technically feasible in Egyptian streets; LED lamps can save more than half of the total needed energy, allowing for the use of a small PV system as well financially viable and environmental impact of CO2 emissions. Furthermore, if the decreasing trend in PV system costs persists and electricity prices rise, solar lighting systems could be feasible in the future.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5





Charge controller unit


European union standards

CO2 :

Carbon dioxide


Cost of energy


Depth of discharge


Egyptian electricity distribution company


Hybrid renewable energy system


The international commission on illumination


Lighting emitted diode


National aeronautics and space administration


Net present cost


Solar photovoltaic


Solar street lighting



a :

Boom length


Number of luminaries

b :

Boom angle


Battery capacity

C :

Plane angle

D :

Days of autonomy

E :

Energy consumption

H :

Height of Luminaire


Peak solar hours in worst case of winter season (h)

L :

Illumination level or luminous intensity

L P :

Luminance of a point p on the road surface

M :

M is motion percentage


Maintenance factor

P (PV):

Power of pv

Q :

Luminaries power in lumens

r :

Reduced luminance coefficient of the road surface

s :

Pole distance or luminaries spacing

U :

Utilization factor


System voltage

W :

Street width

α g :

Angle of observation (from the horizontal)

β :

Angle between plane of light incidence and plane of observation

γ :

llight incidence angle


Luminous flux of the Luminaire


  1. 1.

    Chiu, H.-J., Lo, Y.-K., Yao, C.-J., S-J, : Cheng design and implementation of a photovoltaic high-intensity-discharge street lighting system. IEEE Trans. Power Elctron. 26(12), 3464–4347 (2011)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Kiong, F.W.T.: A cost effective solar powered led street light. (2014)

  3. 3.

    Humada, A.M., Hojabri, M., Hamada, H.M., Samsuri, F.B., Ahmed, M.N.: Performance evaluation of two PV technologies (c-Si and CIS) for building integrated photovoltaic based on tropical climate condition: a case study in Malaysia. Energy Build. 119, 233–241 (2016)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Andrzej, O., Grela, J.: Energy saving in the street lighting control system—a new approach based on the EN-15232 standard. Energy Eff. 563, 576 (2017).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Demonstration, T. Program, G.: LED street lighting (2008)

  6. 6.

    Malhotra, S., Kumar, V.: Smart street lighting system: an energy efficient approach. Int. J. Sci. Res. 5(2), 2014–2017 (2016)

  7. 7.

    Bausch, J.: Two energy-efficient streetlight solutions. Electron Prod. (2011)

  8. 8.

    Peña-García, A., Escribano, R., Espín-Estrella, A., Gil-Martín, L.M.: Computational optimization of semi-transparent tension structures for the use of solar light in road tunnels. Tunn. Undergr. Space Technol. 32, 127–131 (2012)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Singh, B.P., Sharma, B.K., Singh, H., Sharma, A.: Comparitive study on solar street light optimization for rural development. Int. J. Sci. Eng. Technol. 2(7) (2014)

  10. 10.

    Liu, G.: Sustainable feasibility of solar photovoltaic powered street lighting systems. Int. J. Electr. Power Energy Syst. 56, 168–174 (2014).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Khalil, A., Rajab, Z., Amhammed, M., Asheibi, A.: The benefits of the transition from fossil fuel to solar energy in Libya: a street lighting system case study. Appl. Sol. Energy (English Transl. Geliotekhnika) 53(2), 138–151 (2017).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Roche, O.M., Blanchard, R.E.: Design of a solar energy centre for providing lighting and income-generating activities for off-grid rural communities in Kenya. Renew. Energy 118, 685–694 (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Studies, S., Sciences, E., Vol, S.: عر ﺎﺷ دوﻣﻋ ة رﺎﻧﻹ ﻲﺋوﺿورﻬﻛ ﺔﻳذﻐﺗ مﺎظﻧ مﻳﻣﺻﺗ ﺔﻳﻗذﻼﻟا ﺔﻧﻳدﻣ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻳﺳﻣﺷﻟا ﺔﻗﺎطﻟا نﻣ Design photoelectric system to light a street pole by solar energy in Lattakia City. 2014(36), (2014)

  14. 14.

    Fontoynont, M.: LED lighting, ultra-low-power lighting schemes for new lighting applications. Comptes Rendus Phys. 19(3), 159–168 (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Fathi, M., Chikouche, A., Abderrazak, M.: Design and realization of LED Driver for solar street lighting applications. Energy Procedia 6, 160–165 (2011).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Fathi, M., Aissat, A., Abderrazak, M.: Optimization of the electronic Driver and thermal management of LEDs lighting powered by solar PV. Energy Procedia 18, 291–299 (2012).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Baburajan, S.: Cost Benefits of Solar-powered LED street lighting system case study-American University of Sharjah, UAE. Int. Res. J. Eng. Technol. 4(2), 11–17 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Kumar, N.M., Singh, A.K., Reddy, K.V.K.: Fossil fuel to solar power: a sustainable technical design for street lighting in Fugar City, Nigeria. Procedia Comput. Sci. 93, 956–966 (2016).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Velaga, N.R., Kumar, A.: Techno-economic evaluation of the feasibility of a smart street light system: a case study of Rural India. Procedia Soc. Behav. Sci. 62, 1220–1224 (2012).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Aly, M., Orabi, M., Abdelkarim, E., El Aroudi A.: Design and development of energy-free solar street LED light system. (2011).

  21. 21.

    Deshmukh, M.K., Singh, A.B.: Modeling of energy performance of stand-alone SPV system using HOMER pro. Energy Procedia 156, 90–94 (2019).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Duman, A.C., Güler, Ö.: Techno-economic analysis of off-grid photovoltaic LED road lighting systems: A case study for northern, central and southern regions of Turkey. Build. Environ. 156, 89–98 (2019).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Lagorse, J., Paire, D., Miraoui, A.: Sizing optimization of a stand-alone street lighting system powered by a hybrid system using fuel cell, PV and battery. Renew. Energy 34(3), 683–691 (2009).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Nyemba, W.R., Chinguwa, S., Mushanguri, I., Mbohwa, C.: Optimization of the design and manufacture of a solar-wind hybrid street light. Procedia Manuf. 35, 285–290 (2019).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Rajeev M., Nair, S.S.: Economic feasibility of solar powered street light using high power LED—a case study. In: International Conference on Renewable Energy Util, pp. 75–80. (2012)

  26. 26.

    Anand, S., Rao, A.B.: Models for deployment of solar PV lighting applications in Rural India. Energy Procedia 90, 455–462 (2016).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Shahzad, K., et al.: An ecological feasibility study for developing sustainable street lighting system. J. Clean. Prod. 175, 683–695 (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Wu, M.S., Huang, H.H., Huang, B.J., Tang, C.W., Cheng, C.W.: Economic feasibility of solar-powered led roadway lighting. Renew. Energy 34(8), 1934–1938 (2009).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Fashina, A., et al.: A study on the reliability and performance of solar powered street lighting systems. Int. J. Sci. World 5(2), 110 (2017).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Baburajan, S., Amin, F., Ahmed, A.: Solar powered LED street lighting system case study. Am. Univ. Sharjah 8(1), 1002–1009 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Bhairi, M.N., Kangle, S.S., Edake, M.S., Madgundi, B.S., Bhosale, V.B.: Design and implementation of smart solar LED street light. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Trends Electronics and Informatics, ICEI 2017, pp. 509–512. (2018).

  32. 32.

    Jessica.: Pros and Cons of Solar Lighting. SolarBlaze Products. (2017)

  33. 33.

    Site Location:مدينة+المبعوثين/@30.0350481,31.1925029,5428m/data=!3m1!1e3!4m8!1m2!2m1!1sReal+Estate+Developer+of+Cairo+University,+Giza,+Egypt!3m4!1s0x0:0xd1581d60fd0a7e1c!8m2!3d30.0291559!4d31.1964458

  34. 34.

    “National Aeronautics and Space Administration, NASA.”

  35. 35.

    Taylor, A.E.F.: Illumination Fundamentals. Lighting Research Center, New York (2000)

    Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Dilaura, G.R.S.D.L., Houser, K.W., Mistrick, R.G.: The Lighting Handbook: Reference and Application (Illuminating Engineering Society Of North America//Lighting Handbook) 10th edn. Illuminating Engineering, 10th edn. (2011)

  37. 37.

    Kaufman, J.F.C.J.E.: IES Lighting Handbook. Illuminating Engineering Society, New York (2020)

    Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Administration, U.: Federal Highway Office of Safety and Traffic Operations. University of Michigan Library, Roadway lighting handbook (1978)

    Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Eco Lights Price.pdf

  40. 40.

    The Ministry of Electricity and Renewable Energy, Egypt. (2021)

  41. 41.

    Karakoulidis, K., Mavridis, K., Bandekas, D.V., Potolias, A.C., Vordos, N.: Techno-economic analysis of a stand-alone hybrid photovoltaic-diesel–battery-fuel cell power system. Renew. Energy 36(8), 2238–2244 (2011)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Brander et al., A.M.: Technical Paper | Electricity-specific emission factors for grid electricity, pp. 1–22 (2011)

  43. 43.

    Information, T.: CO2 factor, pp. 2–4

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Marwa M. Ibrahim.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Appendix A: luminary specifications used in commercial study of solar street lighting [39]

Appendix A: luminary specifications used in commercial study of solar street lighting [39]


Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Ibrahim, M.M., Elwany, A.M. & Elansary, L.K. Sustainable technical design and economic–environmental analysis of SMART solar street lighting system in Giza City, Egypt. Int J Energy Environ Eng (2021).

Download citation


  • Solar photovoltaic
  • Street lighting
  • LED
  • Standalone system
  • Simulation