Sustainable technical design and economic–environmental analysis of SMART solar street lighting system in Giza City, Egypt


This paper introduces a study on using solar energy instead of fossil fuel energy to light the dark and gloomy streets. An intelligent smart street light system is implemented and the feasibility of SSL is evaluated using a case study of a remotely street located Real Estate Developer of Cairo University in Bolak Al Dakrour district in the state of Giza, Egypt. The main objective is to investigate the technical design feasibility of standalone solar systems, to evaluate cost–benefit analysis of solar LED luminaries compared to convention electrical luminaries for the outdoor street lighting system and to determine the sizing of system components as well as simulation of lighting arrangements is performed using DIALUX 4.12 software package. Results show that the integrated solar street light including motion sensor is used here in this study including LAMP of 15 W LED PHILIPS, 45 W Monocrystalline panel, 12 V 37.5 AH Lithium-ion battery and 10 A 12 V charge controller. This proposed system is designed according to 12 operation hours: 4 h with 100% efficiency, 4 h 75% with efficiency and 4 h with 50% efficiency. Luminaries' arrangements are two sides offset, pole height is 7 m and pole distance 32 m. It is found the cost benefit of using solar LED luminaries against normal electric luminaries reaches about 62% and payback period is 2 years. So, the proposed solar-powered LED street lighting system is technically feasible in Egyptian streets; LED lamps can save more than half of the total needed energy, allowing for the use of a small PV system as well financially viable and environmental impact of CO2 emissions. Furthermore, if the decreasing trend in PV system costs persists and electricity prices rise, solar lighting systems could be feasible in the future.

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Charge controller unit


European union standards

CO2 :

Carbon dioxide


Cost of energy


Depth of discharge


Egyptian electricity distribution company


Hybrid renewable energy system


The international commission on illumination


Lighting emitted diode


National aeronautics and space administration


Net present cost


Solar photovoltaic


Solar street lighting



a :

Boom length


Number of luminaries

b :

Boom angle


Battery capacity

C :

Plane angle

D :

Days of autonomy

E :

Energy consumption

H :

Height of Luminaire


Peak solar hours in worst case of winter season (h)

L :

Illumination level or luminous intensity

L P :

Luminance of a point p on the road surface

M :

M is motion percentage


Maintenance factor

P (PV):

Power of pv

Q :

Luminaries power in lumens

r :

Reduced luminance coefficient of the road surface

s :

Pole distance or luminaries spacing

U :

Utilization factor


System voltage

W :

Street width

α g :

Angle of observation (from the horizontal)

β :

Angle between plane of light incidence and plane of observation

γ :

llight incidence angle


Luminous flux of the Luminaire


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Correspondence to Marwa M. Ibrahim.

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Appendix A: luminary specifications used in commercial study of solar street lighting [39]

Appendix A: luminary specifications used in commercial study of solar street lighting [39]


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Ibrahim, M.M., Elwany, A.M. & Elansary, L.K. Sustainable technical design and economic–environmental analysis of SMART solar street lighting system in Giza City, Egypt. Int J Energy Environ Eng (2021).

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  • Solar photovoltaic
  • Street lighting
  • LED
  • Standalone system
  • Simulation