Using DOE and RSM procedures to analyze and model a spray evaporation type solar still

Abstract

The lower productivity of the conventional solar still requires bringing modifications to this system. The proposed modification in this work consists of coupling water spray and ambient air injection, which may enhance the water–air surface contact area as it plays a crucial role in the performance in such a device and, consequently, increases the still performances. Response surface methodology (RSM) model is derived from an experimental test set up using the design of experiment procedure to investigate the binary interaction effects of the operating parameters, i.e., spraying height, inlet water temperature, and water and air flowrates. Based on RSM results, a simple polynomial statistical model is stated in this investigation to determine and maximize the amount of evaporated water from solar still based on the four considered input factors. An excellent fitting is attained between the predicted results derived from the statistical model and the experimental results. The performance of this model was also validated using the variance analysis approach. The findings indicate that the main influencing parameters in the order of impact on the system productivity is ambient air mass flow, saltwater temperature, sprayed water mass flow and sprayer height. The binary interaction effects of the variables were considered and illustrated for design recommendations. Within the studied ranges, the hourly productivity varies from 1.91 to 7.9 kg/h m2 for a water temperature between 40 and 70 °C.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

Abbreviations

H :

Spray height m

Q :

Mass flowkg/m2 h

T :

Temperature°C or K

Y :

Absolute humidity kg/kg dry air

ANOVA:

Analysis of variance

evap:

Evaporated water

DOE:

Design of experiments

RSM:

Response surface methodology

DF:

Degree of freedom

a:

Air

w:

Water

in:

Inlet

out:

Outlet

References

  1. 1.

    Azevedo, F.D.A.S.M.: Renewable energy powered desalination systems: technologies and market analysis (Doctoral dissertation) (2014)

  2. 2.

    Asadi, R.Z., Suja, F., Ruslan, M.H.: The application of a solar still in domestic and industrial wastewater treatment. Sol. Energy 93, 63–71 (2013)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Yadav, S., Sudhakar, K.: Different domestic designs of solar stills: a review. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 47, 718–731 (2015)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Taamneh, Y., Manokar, A.M., Thalib, M.M., Kabeel, A.E., Sathyamurthy, R., Chamkha, A.J.: Extraction of drinking water from modified inclined solar still incorporated with spiral tube solar water heater. J. Water Process Eng. 38, 101613 (2020)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Omara, Z.M., Abdullah, A.S., Dakrory, T.: Improving the productivity of solar still by using water fan and wind turbine. Sol. Energy 147, 181–188 (2017)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Eldalil, K.M.: Improving the performance of solar still using vibratory harmonic effect. Desalination 251(1–3), 3–11 (2010)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Dumka, P., Mishra, D.R.: Performance evaluation of single slope solar still augmented with the ultrasonic fogger. Energy 190, 116398 (2020)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Abdullah, A.S., Essa, F.A., Omara, Z.M., Rashid, Y., Hadj-Taieb, L., Abdelaziz, G.B., Kabeel, A.E.: Rotating-drum solar still with enhanced evaporation and condensation techniques: comprehensive study. Energy Convers. Manag. 199, 112024 (2019)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Alwan, N.T., Shcheklein, S.E., Ali, O.M.: Experimental investigation of modified solar still integrated with solar collector. Case Stud. Therm. Eng. 19, 100614 (2020)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Joy, N., Antony, A., Anderson, A.: Experimental study on improving the performance of solar still using air blower. Int. J. Ambient Energy 39(6), 613–616 (2018)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Abdullah, A.S.: Improving the performance of stepped solar still. Desalination 319, 60–65 (2013)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Rajaseenivasan, T., Shanmugam, R.K., Hareesh, V.M., Srithar, K.: Combined probation of bubble column humidification dehumidification desalination system using solar collectors. Energy 116, 459–469 (2016)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Kabeel, A.E., Abdelgaied, M.: Improving the performance of solar still by using PCM as a thermal storage medium under Egyptian conditions. Desalination 383, 22–28 (2016)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Kabeel, A.E., Abdelgaied, M., Mahgoub, M.: The performance of a modified solar still using hot air injection and PCM. Desalination 379, 102–107 (2016)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Shanmugan, S., Palani, S., Janarthanan, B.: Productivity enhancement of solar still by PCM and Nanoparticles miscellaneous basin absorbing materials. Desalination 433, 186–198 (2018)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Shehata, A.I., Kabeel, A.E., Dawood, M.M.K., Elharidi, A.M., Abd_Elsalam, A., Ramzy, K., Mehanna, A.: Enhancement of the productivity for single solar still with ultrasonic humidifier combined with evacuated solar collector: an experimental study. Energy Convers. Manag. 208, 112592 (2020)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Kabeel, A.E., El-Said, E.M.: Experimental study on a modified solar power driven hybrid desalination system. Desalination 443, 1–10 (2018)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    El-Zahaby, A.M., Kabeel, A.E., Bakry, A.I., El-Agouz, S.A., Hawam, O.M.: Enhancement of solar still performance using a reciprocating spray feeding system—an experimental approach. Desalination 267(2–3), 209–216 (2011)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Eltawil, M.A., Omara, Z.M.: Enhancing the solar still performance using solar photovoltaic, flat plate collector and hot air. Desalination 349, 1–9 (2014)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Tabrizi, F.F., Khosravi, M., Sani, I.S.: Experimental study of a cascade solar still coupled with a humidification–dehumidification system. Energy Convers. Manag. 115, 80–88 (2016)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Rejeb, O., Yousef, M.S., Ghenai, C., Hassan, H., Bettayeb, M.: Investigation of a solar still behaviour using response surface methodology. Case Stud. Therm. Eng. 24, 100816 (2021)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Montgomery, D.C.: Design and Analysis of Experiments, pp. 179–292. Wiley, New Jersey (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Jensen, W.A.: Response surface methodology: process and product optimization using designed experiments. J. Qual. Technol. 49(2), 186 (2017)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Montgomery, D.C.: Design and Analysis of Experiments, Student Solutions Manual, p. 248. Wiley, New Jersey (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Paulo Davim, J.: Design of Experiments in Production Engineering. Management and Industrial Engineering, p. 196. Springer International Publishing Switzerland, Aveiro, Portugal (2016)

  26. 26.

    Ruiz Espejo, M.: Design of experiments for engineers and scientists, pp. 304–305 (2006)

  27. 27.

    Körbahti, B.K., Tanyolaç, A.: Electrochemical treatment of simulated textile wastewater with industrial components and Levafix Blue CA reactive dye: optimization through response surface methodology. J. Hazard. Mater. 151(2–3), 422–431 (2008)

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Karima Hijjaji.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Hijjaji, K., Frikha, N., Gabsi, S. et al. Using DOE and RSM procedures to analyze and model a spray evaporation type solar still. Int J Energy Environ Eng (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40095-021-00392-2

Download citation

Keywords

  • Desalination
  • Solar still
  • DOE
  • Operating conditions
  • RSM