Using DOE and RSM procedures to analyze and model a spray evaporation type solar still


The lower productivity of the conventional solar still requires bringing modifications to this system. The proposed modification in this work consists of coupling water spray and ambient air injection, which may enhance the water–air surface contact area as it plays a crucial role in the performance in such a device and, consequently, increases the still performances. Response surface methodology (RSM) model is derived from an experimental test set up using the design of experiment procedure to investigate the binary interaction effects of the operating parameters, i.e., spraying height, inlet water temperature, and water and air flowrates. Based on RSM results, a simple polynomial statistical model is stated in this investigation to determine and maximize the amount of evaporated water from solar still based on the four considered input factors. An excellent fitting is attained between the predicted results derived from the statistical model and the experimental results. The performance of this model was also validated using the variance analysis approach. The findings indicate that the main influencing parameters in the order of impact on the system productivity is ambient air mass flow, saltwater temperature, sprayed water mass flow and sprayer height. The binary interaction effects of the variables were considered and illustrated for design recommendations. Within the studied ranges, the hourly productivity varies from 1.91 to 7.9 kg/h m2 for a water temperature between 40 and 70 °C.

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Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4


H :

Spray height m

Q :

Mass flowkg/m2 h

T :

Temperature°C or K

Y :

Absolute humidity kg/kg dry air


Analysis of variance


Evaporated water


Design of experiments


Response surface methodology


Degree of freedom










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Correspondence to Karima Hijjaji.

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Hijjaji, K., Frikha, N., Gabsi, S. et al. Using DOE and RSM procedures to analyze and model a spray evaporation type solar still. Int J Energy Environ Eng (2021).

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  • Desalination
  • Solar still
  • DOE
  • Operating conditions
  • RSM