Economic investigation of repowering of the existing wind farms with hybrid wind and solar power plants: a case study

Abstract

In Tamil Nadu, India, the old wind turbines installed in 1988 have to be repowered and replaced by modern/advanced technological wind turbines. A solar power plant can be set up using the vast area between the wind turbines on the farm. The economic evaluation must be carried out to determine whether this hybrid project is economically beneficial. This article aims to examine the financial viability of repowering old wind turbines with solar power plants’ inclusion. According to the initial investment costs specified within fixed areas and the distance between turbines, the issue is articulated as optimizing the net present value (NPV) of the project. In this study, the economic investigation on the wind farm located in Kayathar was explored by replacing 30 numbers of 200 kW old wind turbines with modern wind turbines of 2000–3000 kW and installing the solar power plant between wind turbines, excluding the shadow region of wind turbines. The HOMER Pro software and Excel spreadsheet were used to analyze the optimal allocation, economic, electricity production, and sensitivity analyses of the effective hybrid systems. The value of electricity prices was measured using the levelized cost of energy and NPV methods. Additionally, a sensitivity analysis of the chosen parameters for the internal rate of return and debt service coverage ratio was estimated for wind and solar hybridization. The economic analysis suggests satisfactory profitability for the project, even without depending on subsidies. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis helps one see the consequences of the risk on the life of the wind farm and its impact on the project’s productivity and performance.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16
Fig. 17

Data availability

The authors confirm that the data supporting the findings of this study are available within the article. “As per the data policy and guidelines, data provided to parties would be for their exclusive use only, and under no circumstances, these data reproduced/transferred to other agencies either electronically or in physical form.”

References

  1. 1.

    India wind outlook towards 2022: looking behind headwinds report, Global Wind Energy Council

  2. 2.

    Indian renewable energy industry report (2020) August

  3. 3.

    http://gwec.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/IWEO_2011_lowres.pdf

  4. 4.

    Goyal, M.: Repowering-next big thing in India. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 14(5), 1400–1409 (2010)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Klunne, W.E., Beurskens, H.J.M., Westra, C.: Wind repowering in the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (2001)

  6. 6.

    Cabrejas-Azagra, A., Gómez, J., Lusilla-Hombría, D., Santos-Herrín, M.: Repotenciación de parqueseólicos. Technical report, Escuela de Oganización Industrial (2011)

  7. 7.

    Chen, F.F.: An Indispensable Truth: How Fusion Power Can Save the Planet, pp. 75–175. Springer, Berlin (2011). (chapter 3—The Future of Energy II: Renewable Energy)

    Book  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Villena-Ruiz, R., Ramirez, F.J., Honrubia-Escribano, A., Gómez-Lázaro, E.: A techno-economic analysis of a real wind farm repowering experience: the Malpica case. Energy Convers. Manag. 172, 182–199 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2018.07.024

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Nivedh, B.S., Kumudini Devi, R.P., Sreevalsan, E.: Repowering of wind farms-a case study. Wind Eng. 37(2), 137–150 (2013)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Prabu, T., Kottayil, S.K.: Repowering a windfarm—“a techno-economic approach’’. Wind Eng. 39(4), 385–395 (2015)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Castro, L., Filgueira, A., Seijo, M.A., Muñoz, E., Piegiari, L.: Is it economically possible repowering wind farms, a general analysis in Spain. Renewable Energy & Power Qual J (2016). https://doi.org/10.24084/REPQJ09.603

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Del Río, P., Silvosa, A.C., Gómez, G.I.: Policies and design elements for the repowering of wind farms: a qualitative analysis of different options. Energy Policy 39(4), 1897–1908 (2011)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Pookpunt, S., Ongsakul, W., Madhu, N.: A comprehensive techno-economic analysis for optimally placed wind farms. Electr. Eng. 102, 2161–2179 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00202-020-01014-6

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Gölçek, M., Erdem, H.H., Bayülken, A.: A techno-economical evaluation for installation of suitable wind energy plants in Western Marmara Turkey. Energy Explor. Exploit. 25, 407–428 (2007)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Gungor, A., Gokcek, M., Uçar, H., Arabacł, E., Akyüz, A.: Analysis of wind energy potential and Weibull parameter estimation methods: a case study from Turkey. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13762-019-02566-2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Li, J., Bo, X., Chen, Y.: Feasibility analysis of applying the wind-solar hybrid generation system in pastoral area. In: Zhang, Y. (ed.) Future Wireless Networks and Information Systems. Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering, vol. 144. Springer, Berlin (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Ohunakin, O.S., Oyewola, O.M., Adaramola, M.S.: Economic analysis of wind energy conversion systems using levelized cost of electricity and present value cost methods in Nigeria. Int. J. Energy Environ. Eng. 4, 2 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1186/2251-6832-4-

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Agrawal M., Saxena B.K., Rao K.V.S.: Techno-economic analysis of a grid-connected hybrid solar–wind energy system (2019)

  19. 19.

    Adaramola, M.S., Oyewola, O.M., Ohunakin, O.S., et al.: Techno-economic evaluation of wind energy in southwest Nigeria. Front. Energy 6, 366–378 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11708-012-0205-y

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Kassem, Y., Gökçekuş, H., Zeitoun, M.: Modeling of techno-economic assessment on wind energy potential at three selected coastal regions in Lebanon. Model. Earth Syst. Environ. 5, 1037–1049 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40808-019-00589-9

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Anoune, K., Bouya, M., Laknizi, A.: Techno-economic investigation of solar–wind potential to power an industrial prototype using a hybrid renewable energy system. SN Appl. Sci. 1, 1313 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42452-019-1358-7

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Eltamaly, A.M., Addoweesh, K.E., Bawa, U.: Economic modeling of hybrid renewable energy system: a case study in Saudi Arabia. Arab. J. Sci. Eng. 39, 3827–3839 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13369-014-0945-6

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Wyrobek J., Was J., Zachara M.: Simulation-based analysis of wind farms’ economic viability. In: Swiatek, J., Borzemski, L., Wilimowska, Z. (Eds.) Information Systems Architecture and Technology: Proceedings of 38th International Conference on Information Systems Architecture and Technology—ISAT 2017. ISAT 2017. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, vol. 656. Springer, Cham (2018)

  24. 24.

    Bennaceur, F., KasbadjiMerzouk, N., Merzouk, M., et al.: Technical and economic viability of a wind farm installed in a windy area of Algerian western south region. Euro-Mediterr. J. Environ. Integr. 4, 7 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s41207-018-0088-3

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Tudu, B., Roy, P., Kumar, S., Pal, D., Mandal, K.K., Chakraborty, N.: Techno-economic feasibility analysis of hybrid renewable energy system using improved version of particle swarm optimization. In: Panigrahi, B.K., Das, S., Suganthan, P.N., Nanda, P.K. (eds.) Swarm, Evolutionary, and Memetic Computing. SEMCCO 2012. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 7677. Springer, Berlin (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Javed, M.S., Tao, M.: Techno-economic assessment of a hybrid solar–wind–battery system with genetic algorithm. Energy (2019). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2019.01.211

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Atherton, J., Sharma, R., Salgado, J.: Techno-economic analysis of energy storage systems for application in wind farms. Energy (2017). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2017.06.151

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Li, C., Zhou, D., Wang, H., Lu, Y., Li, D.: Techno-economic performance study of stand-alone wind/diesel/battery hybrid system with different battery technologies in the cold region of China. Energy (2019). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2019.116702

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Azerefegn, T.M., Bhandari, R., Ramayya, A.V.: Techno-economic analysis of grid-integrated PV/wind systems for electricity reliability enhancement in Ethiopian industrial park. Sustain. Cities Soc. (2019). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scs.2019.101915

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Ahmad, J., Imran, M., Khalid, A., Iqbal, W., Ashraf, S.R., Adnan, M., Ali, S.F., Khokhar, K.S.: Techno economic analysis of a wind-photovoltaic-biomass hybrid renewable energy system for rural electrification: a case study of KallarKahar. Energy (2018). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2018.01.133

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Ramli, M.A.M., Hiendro, A., Al-Turki, Y.A.: Techno-economic energy analysis of wind/solar hybrid system: case study for western coastal area of Saudi Arabia. Renew. Energy (2016). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2016.01.071

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Vendoti, S., Muralidhar, M., Kiranmayi, R.: Techno-economic analysis of off-grid solar/wind/biogas/biomass/fuel cell/battery system for electrification in a cluster of villages by HOMER software. Environ. Dev. Sustain. 23, 351–372 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-019-00583-2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Taner, T.: Economic analysis of a wind power plant: a case study for the Cappadocia region. J. Mech. Sci. Technol. 32(3), 1379–1389 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12206-018-0241-6

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Ramli, M.A.M., Hiendro, A., Al-Turki, Y.A.: Techno-economic energy analysis of wind/solar hybrid system: case study for western coastal area of Saudi Arabia. Renew. Energy 91, 374–385 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2016.01.071

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Golovanov, N., Lazaroiu, G.C., Porumb, R.: Wind generation assessment proposal by experimental harmonic and distortion factor analysis. In: 2013 48th International Universities’ Power Engineering Conference (UPEC), Dublin, Ireland, pp. 1–4 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1109/UPEC.2013.6715045

  36. 36.

    Dumbrava, V., Ulmeanu, A.P., Scutariu, M., Lazaroiu, C., Duquenne, P.: Analysis of reliability aspects of wind power generation in Romania using Markov models. In: IET Conference on Renewable Power Generation (RPG 2011), Edinburgh, 2011, pp. 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1049/cp.2011.0173

  37. 37.

    Golovanov, N., Lazaroiu, G., Roscia, M., Zaninelli, D.: Power quality assessment in small scale renewable energy sources supplying distribution systems. Energies 6(2), 634–645 (2013). https://doi.org/10.3390/en6020634

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Kadhirvel, B., Ramaswamy, S., Kirubakaran, V., Bastin, J., ShobanaDevi, A., Kanagavel, P., Balaraman, K.: Optimization of the wind farm layout by repowering the old wind farm and integrating solar power plants: A case study. Int. J. Renewable Energy Res-IJRER. 10(3), (2020)

Download references

Acknowledgements

The researchers would very much like to thank to Dr. S. Gomathinayagam, former Director General, A. ShobanaDevi, Project Engineer NIWE, and officials of the NIWE and Dr. Reddy Prasad D.M., Universiti Teknologi Brunei, Brunei for their valuable contribution to this research work.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to K. Boopathi.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors disclose no potential conflicting interests regarding the publication of this work.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Boopathi, K., Ramaswamy, S., Kirubakaran, V. et al. Economic investigation of repowering of the existing wind farms with hybrid wind and solar power plants: a case study. Int J Energy Environ Eng (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40095-021-00391-3

Download citation

Keywords

  • Wind turbine generator
  • Repowering
  • Annual energy production
  • Net present value
  • Solar power plant
  • Levelized cost of energy