Thermodynamic and experimental analysis of turbocharger for a downsized LPG fuelled automotive SI engine

Abstract

There has been extensive research on efficient energy conversion systems which also includes turbocharging the automotive SI engine. This research focuses on comparing the thermodynamic aspects of the turbine at different boost pressures at maximum engine torque and speed regions. A naturally aspirated CNG SI engine developing 15.5 kW at 3400 rpm was converted to a turbocharged LPG engine at the compression ratio of 8.5:1. The turbine performance was evaluated using ANSYS CFX numerical simulation tool and results were validated. The simulation study reveals that 1.3 bar boost pressure has a higher enthalpy generation and also has minimal Mach number than 1.5 bar signifying the effects of exhaust blowdown. Further, the experimental study was carried out at different boost pressures. The results show that at 1.3 bar, the turbine efficiency was higher with reduced heat transfer rate to the compressor which was due to reduced friction work compared to 1.5 bar which altogether improved the engine performance. This is also evident from the minimal COV of IMEP for 1.3 bar. On the whole, the turbine exhibited better performance for 1.3 bar and resulted in reduced thermal loading.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16
Fig. 17
Fig. 18
Fig. 19
Fig. 20
Fig. 21
Fig. 22
Fig. 23
Fig. 24
Fig. 25
Fig. 26
Fig. 27
Fig. 28
Fig. 29
Fig. 30
Fig. 31
Fig. 32
Fig. 33
Fig. 34
Fig. 35

Abbreviations

A:

Area of the scroll

AT :

Throttle cross-sectional area at the turbine wheel (m2)

CNG:

Compressed natural gas

CO:

Carbon monoxide

CO2 :

Carbon dioxide

COV:

Coefficient of variation

EVC:

Exhaust valve closing

EVO:

Exhaust valve opening

g:

Exhaust gas

HC:

Hydrocarbon

IAT:

Intake absolute temperature

IMEP:

Indicated mean effective pressure (bar)

IVC:

Intake valve opening

IVO:

Intake valve closing

k:

Ratio of the specific heat capacity

LPG:

Liquefied petroleum gas

MAP:

Manifold absolute pressure

\({\dot{m}}_{T}\) :

Turbine mass flow rate (kg/s)

NOx :

Oxides of nitrogen

P3t :

Pressure at the turbine inlet (kPa)

P4s :

Pressure at the turbine outlet (kPa)

R:

Centroid radius of the scroll

Rg :

Exhaust gas constant (J/kg K)

T3t :

Temperature at the turbine inlet (K)

T4t :

Temperature at the turbine outlet (K

\({\pi }_{c}\) :

Pressure ratio

\(\mu \) :

Flow coefficient due to friction

\({\eta }_{T}\) :

Turbine efficiency

G:

Gas

S:

Static

T:

Turbine

t:

Total

References

  1. 1.

    Cho, J., Kim, K., Baek, S., Myung, C.L., Park, S.: Abatement potential analysis on CO2 and size-resolved particle emissions from a downsized LPG direct injection engine for a passenger car. Atmos. Pollut. Res. 10, 1711–1722 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apr.2019.07.002

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Thiruvengadam, A., Besch, M., Padmanaban, V., Pradhan, S., Demirgok, B.: Natural gas vehicles in a heavy-duty transportation-a review. Energy Policy 122, 253–259 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2018.07.052

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Moka, S., Pande, M., Rani, M., Gakhar, R., Sharma, M., Rani, J., et al.: Alternative fuels: an overview of current trends and scope for future. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 32, 697–712 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2014.01.023

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Loganathan M, Ramesh A, Loganathan M, Ramesh A. Study on manifold injection of LPG in two-stroke SI engine Study on manifold injection of LPG in two stroke SI engine 2016;9671. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1179/174602207X216255.

  5. 5.

    F.N A.: NOX emission from a spark-ignition engine using 30% isobutanol—gasoline blend. Appl. Therm. Eng. 18, 609–618 (1998)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Pulkrabek, W.W.: Engineering fundamentals of the internal combustion engine. Prentice Hall, New Jersey (2004)

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Chiriac, R., Radu, R., Niculescu, D., Apostolescu, N.: Development of a LPG fueled engine for heavy duty vehicles. SAE Tech. Pap. (2003). https://doi.org/10.4271/2003-01-3261

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Ristovski, Z.D., Jayaratne, E.R., Morawska, L., Ayoko, G.A., Lim, M.: Particle and carbon dioxide emissions from passenger vehicles operating on unleaded petrol and LPG fuel. Sci. Total Environ. 345, 93–98 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2004.10.021

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Gumus, M.: Effects of volumetric ef fi ciency on the performance and emissions characteristics of a dual fueled ( gasoline and LPG ) spark ignition engine. Fuel. Process Technol. 92, 1862–1867 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2011.05.001

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Qi DH, Lee CF, Safety A (2016) Combustion and emissions behaviour for ethanol—gasoline-blended fuels in a multipoint electronic fuel injection engine:37–41. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1080/14786451.2014.895004.

  11. 11.

    Porpatham, E., Ramesh, A., Nagalingam, B.: Effect of swirl on the performance and combustion of a biogas fuelled spark ignition engine. Energy Convers Manag. 76, 463–471 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2013.07.071

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Lee, Y., Kim, C., Oh, S.K.K.: Effects of injection timing on mixture distribution in a liquid-phase LPG injection engine for a heavy-duty vehicle. JSME Int. J. Ser. B Fluids Therm. Eng. 47, 410–415 (2004)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Kwak, H., Myung, C.L., Park, S.: Experimental investigation on the time resolved THC emission characteristics of liquid phase LPG injection (LPLi) engine during cold start. Fuel 86, 1475–1482 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2006.11.023

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Díaz, L., Schifter, I., López-Salinas, E., Gamas, E., Rodriguez, R., Avalos, S.: Optimizing automotive LPG blend for Mexico City. Fuel 79, 79–88 (2000). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-2361(99)00105-2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Sunwoo, M., Sim, H., Lee, K.: Design and development of an ECU anti its air-fuel ratio control scheme for an LPG engine with a bypass injector. Proc. IEEE Int. Veh. Electron. Conf. IVEC 1999, 508–513 (1999). https://doi.org/10.1109/IVEC.1999.830740

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Karamangil, M.I.: Development of the auto gas and LPG-powered vehicle sector in Turkey: a statistical case study of the sector for Bursa. Energy Policy 35, 640–649 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2006.01.004

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Lee D, Cho S, Lee B, Ko S, Park J CJ (2006) Enhancement of volumetric efficiency in a gaseous LPG injection engine. 13th Int Pacific Conf Automot Eng.

  18. 18.

    Annual European Union greenhouse gas inventory 1990–2012 and inventory report 2014. 2014. https://doi.org/9/2014.

  19. 19.

    Taylor, A.M.K.P.: Science review of internal combustion engines. Energy Policy 36, 4657–4667 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2008.09.001

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Padmavathi, R., Nandhakumar, K. and Daithankar P. Effect of turbocharger geometrical configurations on engine performance and emissions. Int. Stuttgart Int. Symp., Stuttgart, Germany: n.d.

  21. 21.

    Chiong MS, Tan FX, Rajoo S, Martinez-Botas RF, Yokoyama T, Fujita Y, et al. On-engine performance evaluation of a new-concept turbocharger compressor housing design. SAE Tech Pap 2020;2020-April:1–11. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.4271/2020-01-1012.

  22. 22.

    Giftson J, Muthusamy A, Shangar Ramani V, Bhachchu G, Sivasubramamanian S, Anand M, et al. Evaluation and Selection of Turbocharger Meeting BS6 Emission Norms for 1.99l Engine. SAE Tech Pap 2019;2019-Janua:1–9. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-26-0058.

  23. 23.

    Value in the Air Why Direct Drive Backward Curved Plenum Fans? n.d. https://aaon.com/Documents/Technical/%0AValueInTheAir_110106.pdf.

  24. 24.

    M. Rautenberg, A. Mobarak MM. Influence of heat transfer between turbine and compressor on the performance of small turbochargers. Int Gas Turbine Congr 1983:IGTC-73.

  25. 25.

    M. Rautenberg NK (1984) On the thermodynamics of non-adiabatic compression and expansion processes in turbomachines. Proc. 5th Int. Conf. Mech. Power Eng., Cairo

  26. 26.

    Chesse, P., Chalet, D., Tauzia, X.: Impact of the heat transfer on the performance calculations of automotive turbocharger compressor. Oil. Gas Sci. Technol. 66, 791–800 (2011). https://doi.org/10.2516/ogst/2011129

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Baines, N., Wygant, K.D., Dris, A. The analysis of heat transfer in automotive turbochargers. J Eng Gas Turbines Power 2010;132.

  28. 28.

    Shaaban S, Seume J. Analysis of turbocharger non-adiabatic performance. In: Proceedings of the 8th international conference on turbochargers and turbocharging, London: 2006. C647/027.

  29. 29.

    S. Shaaban (2004) Experimental investigation and extended simulation of turbocharger non-adiabatic performance, PhD Thesis, University of Hannover.

  30. 30.

    D. Hagelstein, B. Beyer, J.R. Seume MR (2002) Heuristical view on the non-adiabatic coupling system of combustion engine and turbocharger. In: Proc. 7th Int. Conf. Turbochargers Turbocharging, London. C602/015.

  31. 31.

    Jung, M., Ford, R.G., Glover, K., Collings, N., Christen, U., Watts, M.J.: Parameterization and transient validation of a variable geometry turbocharger for mean-value modeling at low and medium speed-load points. SAE Tech Pap (2002). https://doi.org/10.4271/2002-01-2729

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Cormerais M, Hetet JF, Chesse P, Maiboom A. Heat transfer analysis in a turbocharger compressor: Modeling and experiments. SAE Tech Pap 2006;2006. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.4271/2006-01-0023.

  33. 33.

    K.S. Chapman, R. Nguru JS. Simplified methodology to correct turbocharger field measurements for heat transfer and other effects final report for gas research institute. 2002.

  34. 34.

    Romagnoli, A., Martinez-Botas, R.: Heat transfer analysis in a turbocharger turbine: an experimental and computational evaluation. Appl Therm Eng 38, 58–77 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2011.12.022

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Nguyen-Schäfer H (2012) Efficiencies of compressor and turbine. Rotordynamics Automot Turbochargers:18–20. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-17644-4.

  36. 36.

    Burke, R.D., Vagg, C.R.M., Chalet, D., Chesse, P.: Heat transfer in turbocharger turbines under steady, pulsating and transient conditions. Int J Heat Fluid Flow 52, 185–197 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2015.01.004

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to thank the Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB), Government of India, Project No: EMR/2016/004138, for their valuable funding, and Vellore Institute of Technology (VIT), for their support to carry out the research work.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

EP: Supervision, conceptualization, methodology, writing- review, and editing. JA: software, data generation, formal analysis, writing- original draft, writing-review, and editing.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to E. Porpatham.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interests

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest regarding the publication of this paper.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Supplementary Information

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary file1 (DOC 8818 KB)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Alexander, J., Porpatham, E. Thermodynamic and experimental analysis of turbocharger for a downsized LPG fuelled automotive SI engine. Int J Energy Environ Eng (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40095-020-00373-x

Download citation

Keywords

  • Turbocharger
  • Turbine
  • Simulation
  • LPG
  • SI engine
  • Performance