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Techno-economic analysis of decentralized biomass energy system and CO2 reduction in the Himalayan region


Sufficient accessibility of pine needles in hilly regions is not only resource wastage but also a cause of forest fire threat. The primary motivation of the present study is to utilize locally available abundant pine needles to complement the diesel-based generation/backup unit. In the present study techno-economic and environmental assessment of off-grid dispersed biomass energy system has been carried out to quench the electricity demand of an educational building load currently run by the state grid. Moreover, a comparative analysis of diesel generator also has been investigated to determine the optimal system configuration for the study area. The biomass gasifier energy system integrated with battery storage was found to be the most favorable configuration with a total net present cost of $78,964 and cost of energy of 0.192$/kWh, and it saves 27.7 Mt of CO2/year relative to only diesel system. The study will provide insights to designers, researchers, investors, and policy originators in the field of biomass energy systems.

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Hybrid renewable energy system


Biomass gasifier

d :

Day of a year

t :

Hour of a day


Diesel generator


Battery state of charge


Matrix Laboratory


Improved Hybrid Optimization by Genetic Algorithm


National Renewable Energy Laboratory


Transient Energy System Simulation Program


Renewable Energy Project Analysis Software


Total net present cost


Cost of energy


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Correspondence to Prashant Malik.

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Malik, P., Awasthi, M. & Sinha, S. Techno-economic analysis of decentralized biomass energy system and CO2 reduction in the Himalayan region. Int J Energy Environ Eng 12, 239–249 (2021).

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  • Biomass energy
  • Energy system
  • Diesel generator
  • Hilly region