Techno-economic analysis of decentralized biomass energy system and CO2 reduction in the Himalayan region


Sufficient accessibility of pine needles in hilly regions is not only resource wastage but also a cause of forest fire threat. The primary motivation of the present study is to utilize locally available abundant pine needles to complement the diesel-based generation/backup unit. In the present study techno-economic and environmental assessment of off-grid dispersed biomass energy system has been carried out to quench the electricity demand of an educational building load currently run by the state grid. Moreover, a comparative analysis of diesel generator also has been investigated to determine the optimal system configuration for the study area. The biomass gasifier energy system integrated with battery storage was found to be the most favorable configuration with a total net present cost of $78,964 and cost of energy of 0.192$/kWh, and it saves 27.7 Mt of CO2/year relative to only diesel system. The study will provide insights to designers, researchers, investors, and policy originators in the field of biomass energy systems.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11



Hybrid renewable energy system


Biomass gasifier

d :

Day of a year

t :

Hour of a day


Diesel generator


Battery state of charge


Matrix Laboratory


Improved Hybrid Optimization by Genetic Algorithm


National Renewable Energy Laboratory


Transient Energy System Simulation Program


Renewable Energy Project Analysis Software


Total net present cost


Cost of energy


  1. 1.

    Ocon, J.D., Paul, B.: Energy transition from diesel-based to solar photovoltaics-battery-diesel hybrid system-based island grids in the philippines–techno-economic potential and policy implication on missionary electrification. J. Sustain. Develop. Energy Water Environ. Syst. 7(1), 139–154 (2019)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Sinha, S., Chandel, S.S.: Improving the reliability of photovoltaic-based hybrid power system with battery storage in low wind locations. Sustain. Energy Technol. Assess. 19, 146–159 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Renewables 2018 Global Status Report,

  4. 4.

    Saxena, R.C., Adhikari, D.K., Goyal, H.B.: Biomass-based energy fuel through biochemical routes: a review. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 13(1), 167–178 (2009)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    WBA. WBA global bioenergy statistics 2019. World Bioenergy Association (2019)

  6. 6.

    Chauhan, A., Saini, R.P.: Renewable energy based off-grid rural electrification in Uttarakhand State of India: technology options, modelling method, barriers and recommendations. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 51, 662–681 (2015)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Hiendro, A., Kurnianto, R., Rajagukguk, M., Simanjuntak, Y.M., Junaidi: Technoeconomic analysis of photovoltaic/wind hybrid system for onshore/remote area in Indonesia. Energy 59, 652–657 (2013)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Merei, G., Berger, C., Sauer, D.U.: Optimization of an off-grid hybrid PV-wind diesel system with different battery technologies using genetic algorithm. Sol. Energy 97, 460–473 (2013)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Sinha, S., Chandel, S.S.: Review of software tools for hybrid renewable energy systems. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 32, 192–205 (2014)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Salehin, S., Islam, A.K.M.S., Hoque, R., Rahman, M., Hoque, A., Manna, E.: Optimized model of a solar PV-biogas-diesel hybrid energy system for Adorsho Char Island, Bangladesh. 3rd IntConf Dev Renew Energy Technol 2014, 1–6 (2014)

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Fahmy, F. H., Farghally, H. M., & Ahmed, N. M.: Photovoltaic-biomass gasifier hybrid energy system for poultry house. Int. J. Modern Eng. Res. (IJMER), 4(8) (2014)

  12. 12.

    Sigarchian, S.G., Paleta, R., Malmquist, A., Pina, A.: Feasibility study of using a biogas engine as backup in a decentralized hybrid (PV/wind/battery) power generation system—Case study Kenya. Energy 90, 1830–1841 (2015)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Bhatt, A., Sharma, M.P., Saini, R.P.: Feasibility and sensitivity analysis of an off-grid micro hydro-photovoltaic-biomass and biogas-diesel-battery hybrid energy system for a remote area in Uttarakhand state, India. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 61, 53–69 (2016)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Ramchandran, N., Pai, R., Parihar, A.K.S.: Feasibility assessment of Anchor-Business-Community model for off-grid rural electrification in India. Renew. Energy 97, 197–209 (2016)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Mishra, S., Panigrahi, C.K., Kothari, D.P.: Design and simulation of a solar-wind-biogas hybrid system architecture using HOMER in India. Int. J. Ambient. Energy 37, 184–191 (2016)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Nag, A.K., Sarkar, S.: Modeling of hybrid energy system for futuristic energy demand of an Indian rural area and their optimal and sensitivity analysis. Renew. Energy 118, 477–488 (2018)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Chauhan, A., Saini, R.P.: Discrete harmony search based size optimization of Integrated Renewable Energy System for remote rural areas of Uttarakhand state in India. Renew. Energy 94, 587–604 (2016)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Sen, R., Bhattacharyya, S.C.: Off-grid electricity generation with renewable energy technologies in India: an application of HOMER, Renew. Energy 62, 388–398 (2014)

    Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Rajbongshi, R., Borgohain, D., Mahapatra, S.: Optimization of PV-biomass-diesel and grid base hybrid energy systems for rural electrification by using HOMER. Energy 126, 461–474 (2017)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Eteiba, M.B., Barakat, S., Samy, M.M., Wahba, W.I.: Optimization of an off-grid PV/biomass hybrid system with different battery technologies. Sustain Cities Soc 40, 713–727 (2018)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Ghenai, C., Janajreh, I.: Design of solar-biomass hybrid Microgrid system in Sharjah. Energy Proced. 103, 357–362 (2016)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Kenfack, J., Neirac, F.P., Tatietse, T.T., Mayer, D., Fogue, M., Lejeune, A.: Microhydro-PV-hybrid system: sizing a small hydro-PV-hybrid system for rural electrification in developing countries. Renew. Energy 34(10), 2259–2263 (2009)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Shahzad, M.K., Zahid, A., Rashid, T., Rehan, M.A., Ali, M., Ahmad, M.: Technoeconomic feasibility analysis of a solar-biomass off grid system for the electrification of remote rural areas in Pakistan using HOMER software. Renew. Energy 106, 264–273 (2017)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Malik, P., Awasthi, M., Sinha, S.: Analysis of sensitive parameters influencing a SPV/WT/Biomass/Battery based hybrid system. In: 2019 8th International Conference on Power Systems (ICPS) 2019 Dec 20 (pp. 1–6). IEEE.

  25. 25.

    Askarzadeh, A., dos Santos, C.L.: A novel framework for optimization of a grid independent hybrid renewable energy system: a case study of Iran. Sol. Energy 1(112), 383–396 (2015)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Malik, P., Awasthi, M., Sinha, S.: Study on an existing PV/wind hybrid system using biomass gasifier for energy generation. Pollution 6(2), 335–346 (2020)

    Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Badwawi, R.A., Abusara, M., Mallick, T.: A review of hybrid solar PV and wind energy system. Smart Sci. 3(3), 127–138 (2015)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Gebrehiwot, K., Mondal, M.A.H., Ringler, C., Gebremeskel, A.G.: Optimization and cost-benefit assessment of hybrid power systems for off-grid rural electrification in Ethiopia. Energy 177, 234–246 (2019)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Castellanos, J.G., Walker, M., Poggio, D., Pourkashanian, M., Nimmo, W.: Modelling an off-grid Integrated Renewable Energy System for rural electrification in India using photovoltaics and anaerobic digestion. Renew. Energy 74, 390–398 (2015)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Kanase-Patil, A.B., Saini, R.P., Sharma, M.P.: Sizing of Integrated Renewable Energy System based on load profile and reliability index for the state of Uttarakhand in India. Renew. Energy 36(11), 2809–2821 (2011)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31. [last accessed 20/9/2020]

  32. 32.

    Malik, P., Awasthi, M., Sinha, S.: Study of grid integrated biomass-based hybrid renewable energy systems for Himalayan terrain. Int. J. Sustain. Energy Plan. Manag. 28, 71–88 (2020)

    Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Bala, B.K.: Energy and environment: modelling and simulation. Nova Publishers, Hauppauge (1998)

    Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Chauhan, A., Saini, R.P.: Techno-economic feasibility study on Integrated Renewable Energy System for an isolated community of India. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 59, 388–405 (2016)

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Prashant Malik.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Malik, P., Awasthi, M. & Sinha, S. Techno-economic analysis of decentralized biomass energy system and CO2 reduction in the Himalayan region. Int J Energy Environ Eng (2021).

Download citation


  • Biomass energy
  • Energy system
  • Diesel generator
  • Hilly region