Experimental and theoretical investigation about the effect of nano-coating on heating load

Abstract

Building insulators reducing the natural gas required for interior heating or heating load reduction, have a positive impact on energy saving. Paints containing nano-silica aerogel can be applied as façade coatings and building insulators. In this study, the heating load was assessed for a building in a Mediterranean climate. Acrylic paint containing nano-silica aerogel was used as façade coating. The purpose was obtaining the performance of nano-paint on the reduction of heating load for the building. A model was developed to evaluate the amount of building heating load with and without the nano-paint. Nano-coated façade showed reductions in heating load compared to that façade without nano-coating. In addition, a stable heating load requirement was obtained after applying nano-paint, despite changes in the climatic conditions. Thermal insulation and water repellent properties of the paint containing nano-silica aerogel were important to reduce heating load requirement. Therefore, nano-paint containing silica aerogel was a cost-effective modification for façade which introduced a promising passive method to reduce heating load requirement in the buildings.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12

Abbreviations

A w :

Exterior wall surfaces (m2)

A g :

Window surface area (m2)

A f :

Floor surface area (m2)

c pa :

Air thermal capacity (J/kg K)

h o :

Ambient convective heat transfer coefficient (W/m2 K)

HDD:

Heating degree days (°C)

HL:

Heating load (kWh)

I :

Solar Radiation (W/m2)

k :

Thermal conductivity (W/m K)

L :

Thickness (m)

NCV:

Net calorific value of gas (Tj/kg)

NE:

North-East

NW:

North-West

P f :

Perimeter of floor (m)

Q el :

Excess losses (Wh)

Q fla :

Heat loss from floor to the underground water (Wh)

Q flb :

Heat loss from floor to the ambient (Wh)

Q gl :

Heat loss from windows (Wh)

Q il :

Heat loss trough infiltration (Wh)

Q ol :

Other estimated losses (Wh)

Q T :

Total heat loss during a day (Wh)

R :

Thermal resistance (m2 K/W)

SE:

South-East

SW:

South-West

T co :

Comfort temperature (K)

T a :

Ambient temperature (K)

T am :

Average ambient temperature in a month (°C)

T sur :

Surrounding temperature (K)

t :

Time (h)

U :

Coefficient of transmission(W/m2 K)

VGC:

Volume of consumed gas (m3)

c:

Concrete

cal.:

Calculated value

f:

Floor

g:

Window

G:

Gypsum plaster

P:

Paint

pr.:

Practical value

w:

Wall

α :

Absorption coefficient

η :

Boiler efficiency

ε :

Emissivity factor

ω o :

Wind velocity (m/s)

ρ a :

Air density (kg/m3)

References

  1. 1.

    Greiner PT, York R, McGee JA (2018) Snakes in The Greenhouse: does increased natural gas use reduce carbon dioxide emissions from coal consumption? Energy Res Soc Sci 38:53–57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.erss.2018.02.001

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Farahmand S, Honarvar B, Taheri M (2018) Reduction in carbon dioxide emission with nano paint on building: a case study. Biointerface Res Appl Chem 8(2):3130–3133

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Terhan M, Comakli K (2017) Energy and exergy analyses of natural gas-fired boilers in a district heating system. Appl Therm Eng 121:380–387. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2017.04.091

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Izadyar N, Ghadamian H, Ong HC, Moghadam Z, Chong WT, Shamshirband S (2015) Appraisal of the support vector machine to forecast residential heating demand for the District Heating System based on the monthly overall natural gas consumption. Energy 93:1558–1567. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2015.10.015

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Sheikhi A, Rayati M, Ranjbar AM (2016) Dynamic load management for a residential customer; reinforcement learning approach. Sustain Cities Soc 24:42–51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scs.2016.04.001

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Cesur R, Tekin E, Ulker A (2018) Can natural gas save lives? Evidence from the deployment of a fuel delivery system in a developing country. J Health Econ 59:91–108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhealeco.2018.03.001

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Muringathuparambil RJ, Musango JK, Brent AC, Currie P (2017) Developing building typologies to examine energy efficiency in representative low cost buildings in Cape Town townships. Sustain Cities Soc 33:1–17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scs.2017.05.011

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Björnebo L, Spatari S, Gurian PL (2018) A greenhouse gas abatement framework for investment in district heating. Appl Energy 211:1095–1105. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.12.003

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Administration Ei (2018) Country analysis brief. https://www.eia.gov/beta/international/analysis.php?iso=IRN. 2018

  10. 10.

    Tribune F (2017) Households to drive Iran’s gas demand in cold season. Financial tribune

  11. 11.

    Agency EE (2008) Energy and environment report 2008. Luxembourg: office for official publications of the European Communities, 2008. https://doi.org/10.2800/10548

  12. 12.

    Baneshi M, Gonome H, Maruyama S (2016) Cool black roof impacts into the cooling and heating load demand of a residential building in various climates. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells 152:21–33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solmat.2016.03.023

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Facts global energy (2017)

  14. 14.

    Rashwan A, Farag O, Moustafa W (2013) Energy performance analysis of integrating building envelopes with nanomaterials. J Sustain Built Environ 2:209–223. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsbe.2013.12.001

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Ibrahim M, Wurtz E, Achard P, Biwole P (2014) Aerogel-based coating for energy-efficient building envelopes

  16. 16.

    Sheikhzadeh GA, Azemati A, Khorasanizadeh H, Shirkavand Hadavand B, Saraei A (2014) The effect of mineral micro particle in coating on energy consumptionreduction and thermal comfort in a room with a radiation coolingpanel in different climates. Energy Build 82:644–650. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2014.07.043

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Macmullen J, Zhang Z, Radulovic J, Herodotou C, Totomis M, Dhakal H, Bennett N (2012) Titanium dioxide and zinc oxide nano-particulate enhanced oil-in-water (O/W) facade emulsions for improved masonry thermal insulation and protection. Energy Build 52:86–92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2012.05.027

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Azemati A, Shirkavand Hadavand B, Hosseini H, Salemi Tajarrod A (2013) Thermal modeling of mineral insulator in paints for energy saving. Energy Build 56:109–114. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2012.09.036

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Bhanvase B, Kutbuddin Y, Borse RN, Selokar NR, Pinjari D, Sonawane S, Pandit A (2013) Ultrasound assisted synthesis of calcium zinc phosphate pigment and its application in nanocontainer for active anticorrosion coatings. Chem Eng J 231:345–354. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2013.07.030

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Hincapié I, Caballero-Guzman A, Hiltbrunner D, Nowack B (2015) Use of engineered nanomaterials in the construction industry with specific emphasis on paints and their flows in construction and demolition waste in Switzerland. Waste Manag 43:398–406. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2015.07.004

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Bozsaky D (2016) Application of nanotechnology-based thermal insulation materials in building construction. Slovak J Civ Eng 24:17–23. https://doi.org/10.1515/sjce-2016-0003

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Elhalawany N, Mossad MA, Zahran MK (2014) Novel water based coatings containing some conducting polymers nanoparticles (CPNs) as corrosion inhibitors. Prog Organ Coat 77(3):725–732

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Kamal HB, Antonious MS, Mekewi MA, Badawi AM, Gabr AM, El Baghdady K (2015) Nano ZnO/amine composites antimicrobial additives to acrylic paints. Egypt J Pet 24(4):397–404. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpe.2015.10.005

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Abd El-Ghaffar M, Sherif M, Taher A (2016) Novel high solid content nano siliconated poly (VeoVa-acrylate) terpolymer latex for high performance latex paints. Chem Eng J 301:285–298. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2016.04.130

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Jameel ZN, Haider AJ, Taha SY, Gangopadhyay S, Bok S (2016) Evaluation of hybrid sol-gel incorporated with nanoparticles as nano paint, vol 1758. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4959377

  26. 26.

    Dashtizadeh A, Abdouss M, Mahdavi H, Khorassani M, Hosseini J (2013) Modification and improvement of acrylic emulsion paints by reducing organic raw materials and using silica nanocomposite. J Polym Eng 33:357–367. https://doi.org/10.1515/polyeng-2012-0161

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Ali S, Allehaibi HA (2016) Nano-structured sol-gel coatings as protective films against zinc corrosion in 0.5 M HCl solution. J Saudi Chem Soc. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jscs.2016.12.001

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Aegerter M, Almeida R, Soutar A, Tadanaga K, Yang H, Watanabe T (2008) Coatings made by sol–gel and chemical nanotechnology. J Sol-Gel Sci Technol 47:203–236. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10971-008-1761-9

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Maleki H, Durães L, Portugal A (2014) An overview on silica aerogels synthesis and different mechanical reinforcing strategies. J Non-Cryst Solids 385:55–74. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnoncrysol.2013.10.017

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Bozsaky D (2015) Laboratory tests with liquid nano-ceramic thermal insulation coating. Procedia Eng 123:68–75

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Filippín C, Larsen FS (2012) Historical consumption of heating natural gas and thermal monitoring of a multifamily high-rise building in a temperate/cold climate in Argentina. Buildings 2(4):477–496. https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings2040477

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Lam JC, Tsang CL, Yang L, Li DH (2005) Weather data analysis and design implications for different climatic zones in China. Build Environ 40:277–296. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2004.07.005

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Loh K, Sato MN, John V (2010) Estimating thermal performance of cool colored paints. Energy Build 42:17–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2009.07.026

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Taheri M, Shafie S (1995) A case study on the reduction of energy use for the heating of buildings. Renew Energy 6(7):673–678

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Raeissi S, Taheri M (1998) Optimum overhang dimensions for energy saving. Build Environ 33(5):293–302. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0360-1323(97)00020-6

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Jennings BH (1970) Environmental engineering : analysis and practice/[by] Burgess H. Jennings. International Textbook Co., Scranton

    Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Burdick A (2011) Strategy guideline: accurate heating and cooling load calculations. https://doi.org/10.2172/1018100

  38. 38.

    Baneshi M, Maruyama S (2015) The impacts of applying typical and aesthetically-thermally optimized TiO2 pigmented coatings on cooling and heating load demands of a typical residential building in various climates of Iran. Energy Build. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2015.12.028

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Mehrabi M, Kaabi-Nejadian A, Khalaji Asadi M (2011) Providing a heating degree days (HDDs) atlas across Iran entire zones. https://doi.org/10.3384/ecp110571039

  40. 40.

    Masoodian A, Alijani B, Ebrahimi R (2012) A tempo-spatial survey of degree day (heating and cooling) in Iran. Geogr Environ Sustain 1(1):30–33

    Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Michalak P (2014) The simple hourly method of EN ISO 13790 standard in Matlab/Simulink: a comparative study for the climatic conditions of Poland. Energy 75:568–578. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2014.08.019

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Johansson D, Bagge H, Wahlström Å (2018) Cold climate HVAC 2018: sustainable buildings in cold climates. Springer International Publishing, Berlin

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Funding

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not- for- profit sectors.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Bizhan Honarvar.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Farahmand, S., Honarvar, B., Mowla, D. et al. Experimental and theoretical investigation about the effect of nano-coating on heating load. Int J Ind Chem (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40090-020-00209-x

Download citation

Keywords

  • Heating load
  • Nano-paint
  • Silica aerogel
  • Modelling
  • Building complex
  • Acrylic paint