Degradation of a Basic Blue 41 dye using Fenton reagent was examined at laboratory scale in batch experiments using Box–Behnken statistical experiment design. Dyestuff, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ferrous ion (Fe2+) concentrations were selected as independent factors. On the other hand, color and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal were considered as the response functions. The value of coefficient of determination (R2) for both color and chemical oxygen demand removal with values 0.98 and 0.99 shows the best agreement between predicted value and experimental values. Perturbation plots indicated that iron dosage has the most effect on both color and COD removal. Normalized plot of residuals also indicated that the models were adequate to predict for both responses. Color and COD removal increased with increasing H2O2 and Fe2+ concentrations up to a certain level. High concentrations of H2O2 and Fe2+ did not result in better removal of color and COD due to hydroxyl radical being gradually consumed by both oxidant and catalyst. Percent color removal was higher than COD removal indicating the production of colorless compounds. The second-order polynomial model revealed optimal process factor ratio. The ratio of H2O2/Fe2+/dyestuff which gives a complete color removal and 95% COD removal was found to be 1195 mg/L/90 mg/L/255 mg/L.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Nidheesh PV, Gandhimathi R (2013) Degradation of dyes from aqueous solution by Fenton processes: a review. Environ Sci Pollut Res 20:2099–2132. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-012-1385-z
Santos B, Cervantes FJ, Van Lier JB (2007) Review paper on current technologies for decolourisation of textile wastewaters: perspectives for anaerobic biotechnology. Bioresour Technol 98:2369–2385. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2006.11.013
Sharma P, Kaur H, Sharma M, Sahore V (2011) A review on applicability of naturally available adsorbents for the removal of hazardous dyes from aqueous waste. Environ Monit Assess 183:151–195. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-011-1914-0
Bouafia-Chergui Souâd, Oturan Nihal, Khalaf H, Oturan MA (2010) Critical reviews in environmental science and technology decolorization of wastewater decolorization of wastewater. Environ Sci Technol 45(5):622–629. https://doi.org/10.1080/10643380091184237
Baughman GL, Weber EJ (1994) Transformation of dyes and related compounds in anoxic sediment: kinetics and products. Environ Sci Technol 28:267–276
Fontenot EJ, Lee YH, Matthews RD et al (2003) Reductive decolorization of a textile reactive dyebath under methanogenic conditions. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 109:207–224
Chung K, Fulk GE, Egan M (1978) Reduction of azo dyes by intestinal anaerobes. Appl Environ Microbiol 35:558–562
Puvaneswari N, Muthukrishnan J, Gunasekaran P (2006) Toxicity assessment and microbial degradation of azo dyes. IJEB 1009:618–626
Khouni I, Marrot B, Moulin P, Ben R (2011) Decolourization of the reconstituted textile effluent by different process treatments: enzymatic catalysis, coagulation/flocculation and nano filtration processes. DES 268:27–37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2010.09.046
Chakraborty S, Basu JK, Dasgupta S (2005) Treatment of a textile effluent: application of a combination method involving adsorption and nanofiltration. Desalination 174:73–85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2004.08.040
Uygur A, Kök E (1999) Decolorisation treatments of azo dye waste waters including dichlorotriazinyl reactive groups by using advanced oxidation method. JSDC 115:350–354
Blanco J, Torrades F, De M, García-montaño J (2012) Fenton and biological-Fenton coupled processes for textile wastewater treatment and reuse. Desalination 286:394–399. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2011.11.055
Bianco B, De Michelis I, Vegliò F (2011) Fenton treatment of complex industrial wastewater: optimization of process conditions by surface response method. J Hazard Mater J 186:1733–1738. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.12.054
Fongsatitkul P, Elefsiniotis P, Yamasmit A, Yamasmit N (2004) Use of sequencing batch reactors and Fenton’s reagent to treat a wastewater from a textile industry. Biochem Eng J 21:213–220. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bej.2004.06.009
Lucas MS (2006) Decolorization of the azo dye Reactive Black 5 by Fenton and photo-Fenton oxidation. Dye Pigments 71:236–244. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dyepig.2005.07.007
Sun J, Sun S, Sun J et al (2007) Degradation of azo dye Acid black 1 using low concentration iron of Fenton process facilitated by ultrasonic irradiation. Ultrason Sonochem 14:761–766. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2006.12.010
Kaptan D (2004) Color and COD removal from wastewater containing Reactive Black 5 using Fenton’ s oxidation process. Chemosphere 54:435–441. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2003.08.010
Bas D (2007) Modeling and optimization I: usability of response surface methodology. J Food Eng 78:836–845. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2005.11.024
Rosales E, Sanromán MA, Pazos M (2012) Application of central composite face-centered design and response surface methodology for the optimization of electro-Fenton decolorization of Azure B dye. Env Sci Pollut Res 19:1738–1746. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-011-0668-0
Nair AT, Makwana AR, Ahammed MM (2014) The use of response surface methodology for modelling and analysis of water and wastewater treatment processes: a review. Water Sci Technol 69(3):464–478. https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2013.733
Ay F, Catalkaya EC, Kargi F (2009) A statistical experiment design approach for advanced oxidation of Direct Red azo-dye by photo-Fenton treatment. J Hazard Mater 162:230–236. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.05.027
Al-Musawi TJ, Kamani H, Bazrafshan E et al (2019) Optimization the effects of physicochemical parameters on the degradation of cephalexin in Sono-Fenton reactor by using Box–Behnken response surface methodology. Catal Lett 149:1186–1196. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10562-019-02713-x
Khataee A, Safarpour M, Naseri AZM (2012) photoelectro-Fenton/nanophotocatalysis decolorization of three textile dyes mixture: response surface modeling and multivariate calibration procedure for simultaneous determination. Electroanal Chem 672:53–62
Bouafia-Chergui Souâd, Oturan Nihal, Khalaf H, Oturan MA (2010) Parametric study on the effect of the ratios [H2O2]/[Fe3+] and [H2O]/[substrate] on the photo-Fenton degradation of cationic azo dye Basic Blue 41. J Environ Sci Heal Part A Toxic Hazard Subst Environ Eng 45(5):622–629. https://doi.org/10.1080/10934521003595746
Clesceri LS, Greenbaerg AE, Eaton AD (1998) Standard methods for examination of water and wastewater (standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater), 20th edn. American Public Health Association (APHA), Washington, DC
Moghaddam SS, Moghaddam MRA, Arami M (2010) Coagulation/flocculation process for dye removal using sludge from water treatment plant: optimization through response surface methodology. J Hazard Mater 175:651–657. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.10.058
Xu H, Qi S, Li Y, Zhao Y (2013) Heterogeneous Fenton-like discoloration of Rhodamine B using natural schorl as catalyst: optimization by response surface methodology. Environ Sci Pollut Res 20:5764–5772. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-013-1578-0
Montogomery D (2010) Design and analysis of experimenters, 7th edn. Wiley India Pvt Ltd, New Delhi
Fathinia M, Khataee AR, Zarei M, Aber S (2010) A: chemical comparative photocatalytic degradation of two dyes on immobilized TiO2 nanoparticles: effect of dye molecular structure and response surface approach. J Mol Catal A Chem 333:73–84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molcata.2010.09.018
Mason R, Gunst RHJ (2003) Statistical design and analysis of experiments with applications to engineering and science, 2nd edn. Wiley, New York
Carlson R, Carlson J (2005) Design and optimization in organic synthesis, 1st edn. Elsevier, Amsterdem
Anderson M, Whitcomb P (2007) DOE simplified: practical tools for effective experimentation, 3rd edn. CRC Press, Newyork
Emilio CA, Jardim WF, Litter MI, Mansilla HD (2002) EDTA destruction using the solar ferrioxalate advanced oxidation technology (AOT) Comparison with solar photo-Fenton treatment. J Photochem Photobiol 151:121–127
Nogueira RFP, Guimaraes J (2000) Photo degradation of dichloroacetic acid and 2, 4-dichlorophenol by ferric oxalate/H2O2 system. Water Res 34:895–901
Torrades F, Perez M, Mansilla MD, Peral J (2003) Experimental design of Fenton and photo-Fenton reactions for the treatment of cellulose bleaching effluents. Chemosphere 53:1211–1220. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(03)00579-4
Ghaly MY, Ha G, Mayer R, Haseneder R (2001) Photochemical oxidation of p-chlorophenol by UV/H2O2 and photo-Fenton process. A comparative study. Waste Manag 21:41–47
Hsueh CL, Huang YH, Wang CC, Chen CY (2005) Degradation of azo dyes using low iron concentration of Fenton and Fenton-like system. Chemosphere 58:1409–1414. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2004.09.091
Ay F, Catalkaya EC, Kargi F (2008) Advanced oxidation of Direct Red (DR 28) by Fenton treatment. Environ Eng Sci 25:1445–1462. https://doi.org/10.1089/ees.2007.0218
Arslan-alaton I, Tureli G, Olmez-hanci T (2009) Treatment of azo dye production wastewaters using photo-Fenton-like advanced oxidation processes: optimization by response surface methodology. J Photochem Photobiol A 202:142–153. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotochem.2008.11.019
The authors would like to acknowledge Addis Ababa Institute of Technology, Addis Ababa University, for providing the necessary laboratory facility.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Solomon, D., Kiflie, Z. & Van Hulle, S. Using Box–Behnken experimental design to optimize the degradation of Basic Blue 41 dye by Fenton reaction. Int J Ind Chem (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40090-020-00201-5
- Box–Behnken design
- Basic Blue 41 dye
- Fenton oxidation
- Color removal
- Chemical oxygen demand removal