Cellulose Acetate Modified Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) Nanoparticles Electrospun Composite Membranes: Fabrication and Characterization

Original Contribution


Hybrid membranes from Cellulose Acetate (CA) and titanium oxide (TiO2) nanoparticles were fabricated using electrospinning technique. The electrospun hybrid membranes were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy, high energy electrons of the energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction patterns, atomic force microscopy, zeta potential (ζ), and thermo gravimetric analysis. The impact of TiO2 contents on the electrospun membranes matrix was studied in detail. All these characterization results indicated that TiO2 were uniformly distributed within the CA electrospun membrane’s matrix. The addition of TiO2 caused formation of largely interconnected fiber networks which in turn have a positive effect on the enhancement of the membrane pore structures. As the amount of TiO2 addition was raised from 0 to 6.5 wt%, the entanglements of the fibers and the spider-net like network among fibers were increased.


Electrospinning Hybrid membranes Cellulose acetate TiO2 



The authors acknowledge the support provided by (1) Central Instruments Facility (CIF), IIT Guwahati, India and (2) Department of Physics, IIT Guwahati for allowing them to use FESEM and electronning setup.


  1. 1.
    S. Ramakrishna, K. Fujihara, W.-E. Teo, T.-C. Lim, Z. Ma, An Introduction to Electrospinning and Nanofibers (World Scientific, Singapore, 2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    N. Bhardwaj, S.C. Kundu, Electrospinning: a fascinating fiber fabrication technique. Biotechnol. Adv. 28, 325–347 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    W.-E. Teo, S. Ramakrishna, Electrospun nanofibers as a platform for multifunctional, hierarchically organized nanocomposite. Comp. Sci. Technol. 69, 1804–1817 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    X. Wang, D. Fang, K. Yoon, B.S. Hsiao, B. Chu, High performance ultrafiltration composite membranes based on poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel coating on crosslinked nanofibrous poly(vinyl alcohol) scaffold. J. Membr. Sci. 278, 261–268 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    M. Algarra, M.I. Vázquez, B. Alonso, C.M. Casado, J. Casado, J. Benavente, Characterization of an engineered cellulose based membrane by thiol dendrimer for heavy metals removal. Chem. Eng. J. 253, 472–477 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    R. Konwarh, N. Karak, M. Misra, Electrospun cellulose acetate nanofibers: the present status and gamut of biotechnological applications. Biotechnol. Adv. 31, 421–437 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    R. Abedini, S.M. Mousavi, R. Aminzadeh, A novel cellulose acetate (CA) membrane using TiO2 nanoparticles: preparation, characterization and permeation study. Desalination 277, 40–45 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    X. Cao, J. Ma, X. Shi, Z. Ren, Effect of TiO2 nanoparticle size on the performance of PVDF membrane. Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 2003–2010 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    N. Saffaj, S.A. Younssi, A. Albizane, A. Messouadi, M. Bouhria, M. Persin, M. Cretin, A. Larbot, Preparation and characterization of ultrafiltration membranes for toxic removal from wastewater. Desalination 168, 259–263 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    A. Rahimpour, S.S. Madaeni, A.H. Taheri, Y. Mansourpanah, Coupling TiO2 nanoparticles with UV irradiation for modification of polyethersulfone ultrafiltration membranes. J. Membr. Sci. 313, 158–169 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    H. Joo Kim, H. Raj Pant, J. Hee Kim, N. Jung Choi, C. Sang Kim, Fabrication of multi-functional TiO2-fly ash/polyurethane nanocomposite membrane via electrospinning. Ceram. Int. 40, 3023–3029 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    H.-T. Kim, C.-H. Lee, Y.-G. Shul, J.-K. Moon, E.-H. Lee, Evaluation of PAN–TiO2 composite adsorbent for removal of Pb(II) ion in aqueous solution. Sep. Sci. Technol. 38, 695–713 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    L. Liu, C. Zhao, F. Yang, TiO2 and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) coated polyester filter in bioreactor for wastewater treatment. Water Res. 46, 1969–1978 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    H. Song, J. Shao, Y. He, B. Liu, X. Zhong, Natural organic matter removal and flux decline with PEG–TiO2-doped PVDF membranes by integration of ultrafiltration with photocatalysis. J. Membr. Sci. 405–406, 48–56 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Y.B. Kim, D. Cho, W.H. Park, Enhancement of mechanical properties of TiO2 nanofibers by reinforcement with polysulfone fibers. Mater. Lett. 64, 189–191 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    S. Tungprapa, T. Puangparn, M. Weerasombut, I. Jangchud, P. Fakum, S. Semongkhol, C. Meechaisue, P. Supaphol, Electrospun cellulose acetate fibers: effect of solvent system on morphology and fiber diameter. Cell 14, 563–575 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Z. Ma, M. Kotaki, S. Ramakrishna, Electrospun cellulose nanofiber as affinity membrane. J. Membr. Sci. 265, 115–123 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    R. Nigmatullin, R. Lovitt, C. Wright, M. Linder, T. Nakari-Setälä, M. Gama, Atomic force microscopy study of cellulose surface interaction controlled by cellulose binding domains. Colloids Surf. B: Biointerfaces 35, 125–135 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    D.L. Liao, G.S. Wu, B.Q. Liao, Zeta potential of shape-controlled TiO2 nanoparticles with surfactants. Colloids Surf. A: Phys. Chem. Eng. Asp. 348, 270–275 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    H.R. Pant, M.P. Bajgai, K.T. Nam, Y.A. Seo, D.R. Pandeya, S.T. Hong, H.Y. Kim, Electrospun nylon-6 spider-net like nanofiber mat containing TiO2 nanoparticles. J. Hazard. Mater. 185, 124–130 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    T.-H. Bae, I.-C. Kim, T.-M. Tak, Preparation and characterization of fouling-resistant TiO2 self-assembled nanocomposite membranes. J. Membr. Sci. 275, 1–5 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    S.H. Kim, S.-Y. Kwak, B.-H. Sohn, T.H. Park, Design of TiO2 nanoparticle self-assembled aromatic polyamide thin-film-composite (TFC) membrane as an approach to solve biofouling problem. J. Membr. Sci. 211, 157–165 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    S.-D. Wang, Q. Ma, H. Liu, K. Wang, L.-Z. Ling, K.-Q. Zhang, Robust electrospinning cellulose acetate@TiO2 ultrafine fibers for dyeing water treatment by photocatalytic reactions. RSC Adv. 5, 40521–40530 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Y. Yang, H. Zhang, P. Wang, Q. Zheng, J. Li, The influence of nano-sized TiO2 fillers on the morphologies and properties of PSF UF membrane. J. Membr. Sci. 288, 231–238 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Institution of Engineers (India) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology GuwahatiGuwahatiIndia

Personalised recommendations