A Study of Ballast Water Treatment Using Engine Waste Heat

  • Rajoo BalajiEmail author
  • Omar Yaakob
  • Kho King Koh
  • Faizul Amri bin Adnan
  • Nasrudin bin Ismail
  • Badruzzaman bin Ahmad
  • Mohd Arif bin Ismail
Original Contribution


Heat treatment of ballast water using engine waste heat can be an advantageous option complementing any proven technology. A treatment system was envisaged based on the ballast system of an existing, operational crude carrier. It was found that the available waste heat could raise the temperatures by 25 °C and voyage time requirements were found to be considerable between 7 and 12 days to heat the high volumes of ballast water. Further, a heat recovery of 14–33% of input energies from exhaust gases was recorded while using a test rig arrangement representing a shipboard arrangement. With laboratory level tests at temperature ranges of around 55–75 °C, almost complete species mortalities for representative phytoplankton, zooplankton and bacteria were observed while the time for exposure varied from 15 to 60 s. Based on the heat availability analyses for harvesting heat from the engine exhaust gases(vessel and test rig), heat exchanger designs were developed and optimized using Lagrangian method applying Bell–Delaware approaches. Heat exchanger designs were developed to suit test rig engines also. Based on these designs, heat exchanger and other equipment were procured and erected. The species’ mortalities were tested in this mini-scale arrangement resembling the shipboard arrangement. The mortalities realized were > 95% with heat from jacket fresh water and exhaust gases alone. The viability of the system was thus validated.


Ballast water Waste heat Heat exchanger Species mortalities 

List of symbols

\( A_{o\;opt} \)

Optimum area (m2)

\( A_{o} \)

Outside area of tubes available for heat transfer (m2)

\( B_{o} \)

Friction correction factor for change in cross section and flow reversal

\( C_{Ao} \)

Installed cost of heat exchanger (US$/m2)

\( C_{CA} \)

Costs of capital (US$)

\( C_{T} \)

Total annual costs for heat exchanger including operational costs (US$)

\( C_{c} \)

Heat capacity of cold stream (W/K)

\( C_{fluid} \)

Specific heat capacity (sea water/exhaust gases) (kJ/kg K)

\( C_{h} \)

Heat capacity of hot stream (W/K)

\( C_{i} \)

Cost to pump fluid inside the tubes (exhaust gas) (US$/kWh)

\( C_{o} \)

Cost to pump fluid on the shell side (sea water) (US$/kWh)

\( C_{ph} \)

Specific heat of hot fluid (exhaust gas) (J/kg K)

\( C_{pc} \)

Specific heat of cold fluid (sea water) (J/kg K)

\( C_{pu} \)

Specific heat of utility fluid (exhaust gas/sea water) (J/kg K)

\( C_{pur} \)

Cost of purchase (US$/m2)

\( C_{tot} \)

Total annual variable costs including operational costs (US$) (direct computation)

\( C_{u} \)

Cost of utility fluid (US$/kg)

\( D_{c} \)

Clearance between tubes giving smallest area for shell side fluid flow

\( D_{i} \)

Inside diameter of tube (mm)

\( D_{o} \)

Outside diameter of tube (mm)

\( E_{i, } E_{i \;opt } \)

Power loss inside tubes/m2

\( E_{o} , E_{o \;opt } \)

Power loss outside tubes/m2

\( F_{s}^{{}} \)

Bypass factor, shell side

\( G_{i \;opt} \)

Mass velocity (optimum) inside tubes (kg/m2 s)

\( G_{i} \)

Mass velocity inside tubes (kg/m2 s)

\( G_{o} \)

Mass velocity shell side (kg/m2 s)

\( G_{s } , G_{s\; opt} \)

Mass velocity (optimum) shell side (kg/m2 s)

\( G \)

Mass velocity (kg/m2 s)

\( H_{y} \)

Number of hours of heat exchanger operation/year

\( I_{EX} \)

Purchase cost of heat exchanger (US$)

\( I_{Ppump} \)

Purchase cost of sea water pump (US$)

\( I_{P\; tch} \)

Purchase cost of turbocharger (US$)

\( K_{F} \)

Fixed charges including maintenance/year as a fraction of installed cost (%)

\( L_{opt} \)

Optimum length of tube (m)

\( N_{b } \)

Number of baffles

\( N_{c} \)

Number of clearances between tubes for shell side fluid flow

\( N_{r} \)

Tube rows across which shell side fluid flows

\( N_{t} \)

Number of tubes

\( N_{t\; opt, } N_{ opt } \)

Optimum number of tubes

\( Nu_{s} \)

Nusselt Number, shell side

\( Nu_{t} \)

Nusselt Number, tube side

\( Q_{avail } \)

Heat available for recovery (kW)

\( Q_{exhaust} \)

Heat energy lost to exhaust gases (kW)

\( Q_{in} \)

Heat energy input (kW)

\( Q_{odd \;losses} \)

Heat energy lost due to other factors (kW)

\( Q_{water} \)

Heat energy lost to cooling water (kW)

\( R_{dw} \)

Fouling resistance, combined (tube, scale and dirt) (m2K/W)

\( Re_{t} \)

Reynolds Number, tube side fluid

\( R_{fi } \)

Inside fouling resistance (tube side) (m2K/W)

\( R_{fo} \)

Outside fouling resistance (shell side) (m2K/W)

\( S_{i \;opt} \)

Optimum cross sectional area inside tubes/pass (m2)

\( S_{opt} \)

Optimum cross sectional area (m2)

\( T_{1} \)

Inlet temperature of tube side fluid (exhaust gas) (°C)

\( T_{2} \)

Outlet temperature of tube side fluid (exhaust gas) (°C)

\( U_{o\; opt} \)

Optimum overall heat transfer coefficient

\( U_{o} \)

Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient (W/m2 K)

\( W_{engine \;power} \)

Useful Energy output (kW)

\( X_{T} \)

Ratio of transverse pitch to tube diameter

\( a ' \)

Payback coefficient

\( a_{o}^{{}} \)

Constant for evaluating outside heat transfer coefficient

\( b_{o} \)

Constant for calculating shell side friction factor

\( c_{pi} \)

Specific heat, inside tube (J/kg K)

\( c_{pfo}^{{}} \)

Specific heat of fluid film (shell side) (J/kg K)

\( d_{i} \)

Tube inside diameter (mm)

\( d_{o} \)

Tube outside diameter (mm)

\( f^{\prime} \)

Friction factor, shell side flow

\( f_{i} \)

Fanning friction factor, tube side flow

\( h_{i \;opt} \)

Optimum heat transfer coefficient, tube side (W/m2 K)

\( h_{i} \)

Heat transfer coefficient (W/m2 K)

\( h_{o \;opt} \)

Optimum heat transfer coefficient, shell side (W/m2 K)

\( h_{o} \)

Heat transfer coefficient (W/m2 K)

\( k_{fo}^{{}} \)

Thermal conductivity at film temperature (W/m K)

\( k_{i} \)

Thermal Conductivity, inside tube (W/m K)

\( k_{o} \)

Thermal Conductivity, outside tube (W/m K)

\( k_{s} \)

Thermal Conductivity, shell side (W/m K)

\( k_{t} \)

Thermal Conductivity, tube side (W/m K)

\( l^{\prime} \)

Characteristic length of stream flow (m)

\( m_{c} \)

Mass flow of cold fluid (sea water) (kg/s)

\( m_{fluid} \)

Mass flow of fluid (sea water/exhaust gas)

\( m_{h} \)

Mass flow of hot fluid (exhaust gas) (kg/s)

\( m_{u} \)

Mass flow of utility fluid (kg/s)

\( m_{s} \)

Optimal flow rate of shell side fluid (kg/s)

\( m_{t} \)

Optimal flow rate of tube side fluid (kg/s)

\( n ' \)

Number of years of cost recovery period

\( n_{b} \)

Number of baffle spaces (number of baffles + 1)

\( n_{p} \)

Number of tube passes

\( t_{1} \)

Inlet temperature of shell side fluid (sea water) (°C)

\( t_{2} \)

Outlet temperature of shell side fluid (sea water) (°C)

\( t_{2 opt} \)

Optimum outlet temperature of shell side fluid (sea water) (°C)

\( v_{s} \)

Shell side mass flow velocity (m/s)

\( v_{t} \)

Tube side mass flow velocity (m/s)

\( w_{i} \)

Mass flow inside tubes (kg/s)

\( w_{o} \)

Mass flow outside tubes (kg/s)

\( w_{t} \)

Mass flow, tube side (kg/s)

\( z \)

Interest rate

\( \beta_{i} \)

Friction correction factor for sudden change in tube section and flow reversal

\( \mu_{fo}^{{}} \)

Absolute viscosity of shell side fluid at film temperature (Pa s)

\( \mu_{i} , \mu_{t} \)

Absolute viscosity of tube side fluid (Pa s)

\( \mu_{wi} \)

Absolute viscosity of tube side fluid at wall temperature (Pa s)

\( \rho_{i} \)

Density, inside tube (kg/m3)

\( \rho_{o} \)

Density, outside tube (kg/m3)

\( \rho_{t} \)

Density, tube side (kg/m3)

\( \psi_{i} \)

Dimensional factor for estimating power loss inside tubes

\( \psi_{o} \)

Dimensional factor for estimating power loss outside tubes

\( \emptyset_{i} \)

Correction factor for friction, tube side

\( \varepsilon \)

Heat exchanger effectiveness

\( \varDelta p_{i} ,\varDelta p_{t} \)

Pressure drop, tube side (Pa)

\( \varDelta p_{o} ,\varDelta p_{s} \)

Pressure drop, shell side (Pa)

\( \varDelta p_{ friction} \)

Pressure drop due to friction in tubes (Pa)

\( \varDelta p_{ in\; out} \)

Pressure drop at inlet and outlet sections (Pa)

\( \varDelta p_{ n} \)

Pressure drop in nozzles on shell side (Pa)

\( \varDelta p_{ noz} \)

Pressure drop in nozzles on tube side (Pa)

\( \varDelta p_{ q} \)

Pressure drop in central sections of shell (Pa)

\( \varDelta p_{ qe} \)

Pressure drop in end sections of shell (Pa)

\( \varDelta p_{ w} \)

Pressure drop in window sections of shell (Pa)

\( \varDelta t_{1} , \varDelta t_{1opt} \)

\( (T_{2} - t_{1} ) \) Temperature difference at tube exit/shell entry (°C)

\( \varDelta t_{2, } \varDelta t_{2 opt} \)

\( (T_{1} - t_{2} ) \) Temperature difference at tube entry/shell exit (°C)

\( \Updelta t_{{{in}\sim{out}}} \)

Temperature difference (sea water/exhaust gas) (°C)

\( \varDelta T_{lm} \)

Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference (°C)

\( A \)

Total surface area (m2)

\( F \)

LMTD correction factor

\( L \)

Length of tube (m)

\( LCV \)

Lower calorific value of fuel (MJ/kg)

\( Q \)

Heat duty of heat exchanger (W)

\( SFC \)

Specific fuel consumption (g/kWh)

\( U \)

Overall heat transfer coefficient (W/m2 K)

\( \lambda \)

Lagrangian multiplier


i, o

Inside (tube), outside (shell)

t, s

Tube side, shell side

h, c

Hot fluid, cold fluid


Optimum value



The Authors wish to thank MISC Berhad for the vessel data. The heat availability tests were conducted in Marine Engineering Workshops of Malaysian Maritime Academy. The laboratory level tests were conducted in Universiti Malaysia Terengganu and the species’ mortality tests on heat exchanger-engine arrangement were carried out in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. The tests on species’ mortalities were supported by the Science and Technology Fund (Ref: 04-01-06-SF1031) of Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MOSTI), Malaysia.


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Copyright information

© The Institution of Engineers (India) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Malaysian Maritime AcademyMelakaMalaysia
  2. 2.Marine Technology CentreUniversiti Teknologi MalaysiaJohor BahruMalaysia

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