Skip to main content

Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Compression Ignition Engine Operating on Blends of Castor Oil Biodiesel–Diesel

Abstract

Diesel vehicles are the nerves and veins of transportation, particularly in developing countries. With the rapid rate of modernization, increasing demand of fuel is inevitable. The exponential increase in fuel prices and the scarcity of its supply from the environment have promoted interest in the development of alternative sources of fuel. In this work, genus Ricinus communis L. was studied in order to delimit their potential as a raw material for biodiesel production. Further, castor oil, ethyl ester were prepared by transesterification using potassium hydroxide (KOH) as a catalyst and tested on a four-stroke, single-cylinder compression ignition engine. The test was carried out at a constant speed of 3000 rpm at different loads. The results represent a substantial decrease in carbon monoxide (CO) emission with an increasing biodiesel percentage. The reduction of CO in B05, B10, B15 and B20 averaged 11.75, 22.02, 24.23 and 28.79 %, respectively, compared to mineral diesel. The emission results of the comparative test indicated that CO, oxygen (O2) and smoke density emissions are found to be lower when the engine is filled with B05, B10, B15 and B20 as compared to mineral diesel, while carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) with B05, B10, B15 and B20 are found to increase marginally. Brake thermal efficiency and brake specific fuel consumption decrease and increase respectively in biodiesel with different blends in comparison of mineral diesel.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7

References

  1. 1.

    D.P. Deshpande, Y.D. Urunkar, P.D. Thakare, Production of biodiesel from castor oil using acid and base catalysts. Res. J. Chem. Sci. 2(8), 51–56 (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Carmen Leonor Barajas Forero, Biodiesel from castor oil: a promising fuel for cold weather, clabarajas@bari.ufps.edu.co (2006)

  3. 3.

    www.dovebiotech.com

  4. 4.

    A. Card, D. Whiting, C. Wilson, Colorado State University Extension) and Jean Reeder, Organic Fertilizers (Colorado State University Extension, Fort Collins, 2011)

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    M. Vanaja, M. Jyothi, P. Ratnakumar, P. Vagheera, P. Raghuram Reddy, N. Jyothi Lakshmi, S.K. Yadav, M. Maheshwari, B. Venkateswarlu, Growth and yield responses of castor bean(Ricinus communis L.) to two enhanced CO2 levels. Plant Soil Environ. 1(54), 38–46 (2008)

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    K. Pramanik, Properties and use of jatropha curcas oil and diesel in compression ignition engine. Renew. Energy (Elsevier) 28(2), 239–248 (2003)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    D.G. Hayes, V.K. Mannam, R. Ye, H. Zhao, S. Ortega, M. Claudia Montiel, Modification of oligo-ricinoleic acid and its derivatives with 10-undecenoic acid via lipase-catalyzed esterification. Polymers 4, 1037–1055 (2012). doi:10.3390/polym4021037

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    J. Salimon, D.A.M. Noor, A.T. Nazrizawati, M.Y. Mohd Firdaus, A. Noraishah, Fatty acid composition and physicochemical properties of Malaysian Castor Bean Ricinus communis L. seed oil. Sains Malaysiana 39(5), 761–764 (2010)

    Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    S.L. Seager, M.R. Slabaugh, Organic and Biochemistry for Today, 4th edn. (2004)

  10. 10.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Castor_oil_plant

  11. 11.

    P. Neelamegam, S. Krishnaraj, Estimation of liquid viscosities of oils using associative neural networks. Ind. J. Chem. Technol. 18, 463–468 (2011)

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Jeethendra Kumar P K, Ajeya PadmaJeeth and Santhosh K, Measurement of viscosity of liquids by the Stoke’s method, lab experiments Kamal Jeeth instrumentation and service unit Vol-12, No-2, June-2012

  13. 13.

    P. Eshratabadi, M.H. Sarrafzadeh, H. Fatemi, M. Ghavami, N. Gholipour-Zanjani, Enhanced degumming of soyabean oil and its influences on degummed oil and lecithin. Iran. J. Chem. Eng. 5(1), 65–73 (2008)

    Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    U.F. Ishaq, Production, refining and evaluation pf castor oil, Reg. no: 9Sn013EH, (2004)

  15. 15.

    Oil methyl ester and its diesel blends, Int. J. Appl. Sci. Eng. Technol. (IJASET) 4(2), (2007)

  16. 16.

    P. Sreenivas, V.R. Mamilla, K. Chandra Sekhar, Development of biodiesel from castor oil. Int. J. Energy Sci. 1(3), 192–197 (2011)

    Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    F. Wang, D.M. Zhang, Y.F. Ding, L.X. Zhang, M. Yang, B.L. Jiang, S.M. Zhang, M.Y. Ai, G.W. Liu, S.J. Zhi, F. Lian, X. Ouyang, L. Li, The effect of nanohybrid materials on the pour-point and viscosity depressing of waxy crude oil. Chin. Sci. Bull. 56(1), 14–17 (2011). doi:10.1007/s11434-010-4174-4

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pour_point

  19. 19.

    P.S. Bimbhra, Electrical Machinery [Theory, Performance and Applications], 7th edn. (Khanna Publishers, Delhi, 2009)

    Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    A.E. Fitzgerald, C. Kingsley Jr, S.D. Umans, Electric Machinery, 6th edn. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 2003)

    Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    I. Lozada, J. Islas, G. Grande, Environmental and economic feasibility of palm oil biodiesel in the Mexican transportation sector. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. (Elsevier). doi:10.1016/j.rser.2009.06.034

  22. 22.

    file:///F:/MS/3%20rd%20SEM/ENERGY%20CON/U1/Thermoelectric%20effect%20-%20Wikipedia,%20the%20free%20encyclopedia.htm

  23. 23.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dead_centre

  24. 24.

    M. Pandian, S.P. Sivapirakasam, M. Udayakumar, Influence of injection timing on performance and emission characteristics of naturally aspirated twin cylinder CIDI Engine using bio-diesel blend as fuel, Int. J. Recent Trends Eng. 1(5) (2009)

  25. 25.

    F. Nielsen, B. hill, J. de Jongh, Castor (Ricinus communis) potential of castor for bio-fuel production prepared by FACT Foundation, 2nd ed. (2011)

  26. 26.

    A.K. Agarwal, K. Rajamanoharan, Experimental investigations of performance and emissions of Karanja oil and its blends in a single cylinder agricultural diesel engine. Appl. Energy 86, 106–112 (2009)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    K. Sureshkumar, R. Velraj, Ganesan R., Performance and exhaust emission characteristics of a CI engine fueled with Pongamia pinnata methyl ester (PPME) and its blends with diesel. Renew. Energy 33, 2294–2302 (2008)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    M.M. Conceicao, R.A. Candeia, F.C. Silva, A.F. Bezerra, V.J. Fernandes Jr, A.G. Souza, Thermoanalytical characterization of castor oil biodiesel. Renew. Sustain. 11(5), 964–975 (2007)

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Aditya Narayan Singh.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kanwar, R., Sharma, P.K., Singh, A.N. et al. Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Compression Ignition Engine Operating on Blends of Castor Oil Biodiesel–Diesel. J. Inst. Eng. India Ser. C 98, 147–154 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40032-016-0243-z

Download citation

Keywords

  • Transesterification
  • Biodiesel
  • Castor oil biodiesel
  • Emission and performance
  • Brake thermal efficiency