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Recent Philosophies of AGC Techniques in Deregulated Power Environment

Abstract

The face of power system is changing toward the deregulation concept; the objective is to benefit consumers by providing cheaper electricity, more alternatives, and better services. In this paper, various control techniques, such as conventional control, adaptive and self-tuning, robust control, soft computing/artificial intelligence control and other control techniques, are reviewed for the design of AGC in deregulated power environment. Besides this, the coordinated actions of energy storage devices and FACTS units in the deregulated AGC systems are discussed. In addition, various AGC design structures are highlighted. Further, the merits and demerits of reviewed control techniques have been presented.

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Fig. 1

Abbreviations

ACE:

Area control error

ANFIS:

Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system

ANN:

Artificial neural network

BBBC:

Big bang big crunch

BBO:

Biogeography-based optimization

BFO:

Bacterial foraging optimization

CA:

Cultural algorithm

CES:

Capacitor energy storage

DADRC:

Decentralized active disturbance rejection controller

DDC:

Dynamic demand control

DE:

Differential evolution

DISCOs:

Distribution companies

DMPC:

Distributed model predictive control

ESO:

Extended state observer

ESS:

Energy storage system

FFO:

Fruit fly optimization

FLC:

Fuzzy logic-based controller

FNN:

Flexible neural network

GA:

Genetic algorithm

GDB:

Governor dead band

GENCOs:

Generation companies

GRC:

Generation rate constraint

HES:

Hydrogen energy storage

HILSC:

H-infinity loop-shaping controller

HPSO:

Hybrid particle swarm optimization

HS:

Harmony search

ICA:

Imperialistic competition algorithm

ILMI:

Iterative linear matrix inequalities

IMC:

Integral model control

ISE:

Integral square error

LADRC:

Linear active disturbance rejection control

MFO:

Moth-flame optimization

MOBA:

Multi-objective bees algorithm

MPC:

Model predictive controller

OHST:

Opposition-based harmonic search technique

OSMC:

Optimal sliding mode control

PFC:

Polar fuzzy controller

PSRI:

Power system restoration indices

QOHS:

Quasi-oppositional harmony search

RCGA:

Real coded genetic algorithm

RFB:

Redox flow battery

SA:

Simulated annealing

SFL:

Sugeno fuzzy logic

SMES:

Superconducting magnetic energy storage

SOF:

Static output feedback

SSSC:

Static synchronous series compensator

TCPS:

Thyristor controlled phase shifter

TRANSCOs:

Transmission companies

VSC:

Variable structure control

WMRC:

Wavelet-based multi-resolution controller

ZN:

Ziegler–Nichols tuning

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Mishra, R.N., Chaturvedi, D.K. & Kumar, P. Recent Philosophies of AGC Techniques in Deregulated Power Environment. J. Inst. Eng. India Ser. B 101, 417–433 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40031-020-00463-8

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Keywords

  • Automatic generation control (AGC)
  • Frequency deviation
  • Bilateral contracts
  • Deregulated power system (DPS)
  • Load frequency control (LFC)
  • AC/DC links
  • Tie-lines power deviation