Power System Security Assessment and Enhancement: A Bibliographical Survey

Abstract

Power system security assessment and enhancement are two major crucial issues in a large interconnected power system. System security can be classified on the basis of major functions that are carried out in control centers, namely system monitoring, contingency analysis and security enhancement. The key element involved in security assessment is contingency analysis. In real-time, all contingencies may not cause same severity level. To eliminate non-violation cases and select only critical cases, called contingency analysis, the idea of severity/performance indices seems to fulfill this need. Security enhancement incorporates security constrained optimal power flow (SCOPF) which ensures that system is operating at normal state by taking preventive and corrective control actions so that no contingencies result in violations. SCOPF recommends controller actions to optimize specific objective function such as fuel cost, power losses, emission that subject to a set of power system operating constraints. This paper presents a literature review on two topics which are reviewed in chronological order of appearance; security assessment and enhancement. We explore both traditional and soft computing techniques for assessing system security and enhancement of the power system and also identify key areas for future research.

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Abbreviations

\(P_{k}\) :

Active power flow in kth line

\(P_{k}^{\hbox{max} }\) :

Maximum active power flow in kth line

\({\text{nl}},\,{\text{nb}}\) :

Total number of lines and buses in the network

\(n\) :

Exponent component of index

\(w_{i}\) :

Weighing factor

\(V_{i}\) :

Voltage magnitude of ith bus

\(V_{{i,{\text{sp}}}}\) :

Specified voltage of ith bus

\(\Delta V_{i}^{\lim }\) :

Maximum voltage deviation in ith bus

\(P_{\text{LV}} ,\,P_{{{\text{L}}\delta }}\) :

Severity indices related to voltage and phase angles

\(G_{ik}\) :

Conductance of the transmission line connected between bus i and k

\(\delta_{i}\) :

Phase angle of ith bus

\(d_{{{\text{v}},i}}^{\text{u}} ,\,d_{{{\text{v}},i}}^{\text{l}}\) :

Upper and lower voltage limits of ith bus

\(F_{i}^{\text{u}} ,\,F_{i}^{\text{l}}\) :

Upper and lower voltage alarm limits of ith bus

\(g_{{{\text{v}},i}}^{\text{u}} ,\,g_{{{\text{v}},i}}^{\text{l}}\) :

Normalized upper and lower factors

\(V_{i}^{\text{d}}\) :

Desired voltage at each bus

\(V_{i}^{\text{u}} ,\,V_{i}^{\text{l}}\) :

Upper and lower voltage security limits

\(d_{\text{p,j}} ,g_{{{\text{p}},j}}\) :

Line limits violation vector and normalized vector

\(P_{{{\text{p}},j}} ,\,P_{{{\text{F}},j}}\) :

Security and alarm power flow limits

\(\left| {P_{j} } \right|\) :

Absolute value of the power flows in the jth line

\(\bar{\theta }\) :

Generator rotor angle

\(t_{\text{c1}}\) :

Fault clearance time

\({\text{NG}}\) :

Number of generators

\(T\) :

Length of period after fault clearing

\(V_{\text{ke}} ,\,V_{\text{pe}}\) :

Transient kinetic and potential energy

\(M_{i}\) :

Inertia of ith generator

\(M_{\text{T}}\) :

Total inertia of all generators

\(P_{\text{a}}\) :

Accelerating power

\(P_{\text{mi}}\) :

Mechanical input power

\(P_{\text{ei}}\) :

Electrical output power

\(\theta_{i} ,\,\theta_{i}^{\text{cl}}\) :

Rotor angles with respective to COI and fault clearing time of ith generator

\(\delta_{{{\text{c}}i,\hbox{max} }}\) :

Maximum load angle deviation

\(\delta_{{{\text{c}},\hbox{max} ,{\text{adm}}}}\) :

Maximum admissible load angle deviation is given by the relay

\(\Delta f_{i,\hbox{max} }\) :

Maximum frequency deviation

\(\Delta f_{{\hbox{max} ,{\text{adm}}}}\) :

Maximum admissible frequency deviation

\(v_{i,\hbox{min} }\) :

Minimum instantaneous voltage during transients

\(v_{{i,\hbox{min} ,{\text{adm}}}}\) :

Minimum admissible voltage

\(\Delta v_{{i,{\text{aft}}}}\) :

Voltage deviation at the end of transient period

\(\Delta v_{i,\lim }\) :

Maximum voltage deviation

\(P_{{i,{\text{aft}}}}\) :

Power flow through the line at the end of transient period

\(P_{i,\lim }\) :

Maximum admissible power flow

\(\delta_{\text{coa}}\) :

Centre of load angle

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Teeparthi, K., Vinod Kumar, D.M. Power System Security Assessment and Enhancement: A Bibliographical Survey. J. Inst. Eng. India Ser. B 101, 163–176 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40031-020-00440-1

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Keywords

  • Power system security
  • Contingency analysis
  • Security enhancement
  • Static security assessment
  • Dynamic security assessment