Relation Between Bitumen Content and Percentage Air Voids in Semi Dense Bituminous Concrete

  • R. P. Panda
  • Sudhanshu Sekhar Das
  • P. K. Sahoo
Original Contribution


Hot mix asphalt (HMA) is a heterogeneous mix of aggregate, mineral filler, bitumen, additives and air voids. Researchers have indicated that the durability of the HMA is sensitive on the actual bitumen content and percentage air void. This paper aims at establishing the relationship between the bitumen content and the percentage air voids in Semi Dense Bituminous Concrete (SDBC) using Viscosity Grade-30 (VG-30) bitumen. Total 54 samples have been collected, for formulation and validation of relationship and observed that the percentage air voids increases with decrease in actual bitumen content and vice versa. A minor increase in percentage air voids beyond practice of designed air voids in Marshall Method of design is required for better performance, indicating a need for reducing the codal provision of minimum bitumen content for SDBC as specified in Specification for Road & Bridges (Fourth Revision) published by Indian Road Congress, 2001. The study shows a possibility of reducing designed minimum bitumen content from codal provision for SDBC by 0.2% of weight with VG-30 grade of Bitumen.


Bitumen content Percentage air voids Semi dense bituminous concrete Durability Marshall mix design Performance of flexible pavement 


  1. 1.
    L. Alex, A. Mehdi, S. Sahil, O. John, Sensitivity analysis of the life cycle environmental performance of asphalt and concrete pavement, in Concrete Sustainability Conference (2010)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    S. Kim, H. Ceylan, K. Gopalkrishnan, Effect of M-E design guide input parameters on flexible pavement performance predictions. Road Mater. Pavement Des. 8(3), 375–397 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Indian Road Congress:37, Tentative Guidelines for the Design of Flexible Pavements, December, New Delhi, India (2012)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    National Cooperative Highway Research Program, A Manual for Design of Hot Mix Asphalt with Commentary, NCHRP Report No. 673, Transport Research Board, Washington, United States (2011)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    P. Krugler, M. Tahmoressi, D. Rand, Improving the precision of test methods used in VMA determination. Proc. Assoc. Asph. Paving Technol. 61, 272–303 (1992)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Indian Road Congress, Specification for Road & Bridges Works (Fifth Revision), on behalf of Ministry of Road Transport & Highways, Government of India, New Delhi, India (2013)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    J. Goode, L. Lufsey, Voids, permeability, film thickness versus asphalt hardening, in Proceedings of the Association of Asphalt Paving Technology (1965), pp. 430–463Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    A. Kumar, Effects of Film Thickness, Voids and Permeability on Asphalt Hardening in Asphalt Mixtures, Technical Reports, through Joint Transportation Research Program, Purdue University, Indiana, United States (1976)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    F.L. Roberts, P.S. Kandhal, E.R. Brown, D.Y. Lee, T.W. Kennedy, Hot mix asphalt materials, mixture design, and construction (National Asphalt Paving Association Education Foundation, Lanham, MD, 1996)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    K.A. Willoughby, J.S. Uhlmeyer, J.P. Mahoney, K.W. Anderson, L.M. Pierce, Construction-Related Variability in Pavement Mat Density due to Temperature Differentials. Transportation Research Record No. 1849, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, National Academies, Washington (2003), pp. 166–173Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    E.K. Kamil, W.W. Matthew, W.S. Bevan, Simple performance test for permanent deformation evalution of asphalt mixtures, in 6th RILEM Symposium PTEBM’03, Zurich (2003), pp. 498–505Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    D.W. Christensen Jr., R.F. Bonaquist, Volumetric Requirements for Superpave Mix Design, NCHRP Report No. 567, Transport Research Board, Washington, United States (2006)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    F.M. Nejad, M. Mirzahosseeini, M.K. Novin, H. Abedi, The effects of bitumen percentage and percentage of air void on rutting potential of HMA by using dynamic creep test, in Proceeding of the LJMU 10th Annual International Conference on “Sustainable Construction Material & Pavement Engineering” 16th–17th Feb, Liverpool, UK (2011)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    M.A.G. El Sayed, Effect of changing theoretical maximum specific gravity on asphalt mixture design. Eng. J. 16(4), 137–148 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    D.B. Joshi, A.K. Patel, Optimum bitumen content by marshall mix design for DBM. J. Inf. Knowl. Res. Civil Eng. 2(2), 104–108 (2013)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    N. Roy, A. Veeraragavan, J. Murali Krishnan, Influence of air voids of hot mix asphalt on rutting within the framework of mechanistic-empirical pavement design. Procedia Soc. Behav. Sci. 104, 99–108 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    D. Baskandi, Influence of construction parameters on performance of dense graded bituminous mixes. IOSR J. Mech. Civil Eng. 12(1), 64–78 (2015)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    V.D. Eshan, E.H. Chelsa, H. Benjamin, D. Jay, M.H. Chelsa, Laboratory Performance Test for Asphalt Concrete, Minnesota Department of Transportation Research Services & Library, June, 2015Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    H. Gerald, H. John, W. Jason, K. Anthony, H. Ali, Adjusting design air void levels in superpave mixtures to enhance durability, in 6th Eurasphalt & Eurobitume Congress, 1–3 June, Prague, Czech Republic (2016)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    N.A. Hasan, M.Z.F. Mahmud, N. Adi, N. Rahmat, M.R. Hainin, R.P. Jaya, Effects of air voids content on the performance of porous asphalt mixtures. ARPN J. Eng. Appl. Sci. 11(20), 11884–11887 (2016)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Indian Road Congress, Specification for Road & Bridges Works (Fourth Revision), on Behalf of Ministry of Road Transport & Highways, Government of India, New Delhi, India (2001)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Institution of Engineers (India) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. P. Panda
    • 1
  • Sudhanshu Sekhar Das
    • 2
  • P. K. Sahoo
    • 1
  1. 1.SOA UniversityBhubaneswarIndia
  2. 2.Department of Civil EngineeringVSSUTBurlaIndia

Personalised recommendations