In Vitro Evaluation of Secondary Metabolites: Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity of Manilkara zapota L. Seed Extract

  • C. Mohanapriya
  • S. Uma
  • V. Nithyalakshmi
  • K. S. Rajmohan
  • P. Vijay
  • Rose Havilah Pulla
  • C. Muthukumaran
  • M. Gopinath
Research Article


In the present study, seed extracts were analysed for its effective biological activity. The seed extracts were primarily subjected to qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis and further preceded to techniques such as TLC and bioautography to determine the active compounds through spot specification. The active compounds were further premeditated by GC–MS and FT-IR methods for antimicrobial analysis by agar well diffusion assay against few human pathogens including multidrug resistant phenotypes. The acetone extract of M. Zapota seeds revealed the presence of a significant number of secondary metabolites that ascertained that the plant possesses a rich group of bioactive compounds. The extract was quantified for its total phenolics (67.15 ± 4.35 mg/g), tannins (49.93 ± 8.76 mg/g) and flavonoids (60.06 ± 6.4 mg/g) respectively. GC–MS analysis exhibited the presence of 30 active compounds including both saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. FTIR analysis indicated 16 functional concrete structures of alkanes, alkenes, amines and aliphatic amines. Moreover, RF values calculated for the TLC spots along with the DPPH sprayed biography shows the presence of antioxidant compounds. Among the investigated microorganisms, Micrococcus luteus, Candida albicans and MRSA E-1122 strain exhibited the highest zone of inhibition. The present study provides convincing evidence that M. zapota seeds possess significant activity over human pathogens and MDR-MRSA by its active biocompounds present in the extract that helps to reduce oxidative stress by carrying off an antioxidant molecule that could be developed into therapeutic agents.


M. zapota Antioxidant Antimicrobial activity Pathogens GC–MS FTIR 



The authors are thankful to IIT Madras, India for the instrumental method of analysis. They are thankful to Dr. P. Arumugam, Armats Biotek Pvt. Ltd for their assistance during the research work. They also thank the management of Karpaga Vinayaga College of Engineering and Technology and University of Petroleum and Energy Studies for their constant encouragement in publishing this article.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest to publish this manuscript.


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Copyright information

© The National Academy of Sciences, India 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Mohanapriya
    • 1
  • S. Uma
    • 2
  • V. Nithyalakshmi
    • 2
  • K. S. Rajmohan
    • 3
  • P. Vijay
    • 3
  • Rose Havilah Pulla
    • 3
  • C. Muthukumaran
    • 4
  • M. Gopinath
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of BiotechnologyKarpaga Vinayaga College of Engineering and TechnologyKancheepuramIndia
  2. 2.Department of Food Process EngineeringSRM UniversityKancheepuramIndia
  3. 3.Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering StudiesUniversity of Petroleum and Energy StudiesDehradunIndia
  4. 4.Department of Industrial BiotechnologyGovernment College of TechnologyCoimbatoreIndia

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