Effect of Crop Management Practices on Crop Growth, Productivity and Profitability of Rice–Wheat System in Western Indo-Gangetic Plains
- 43 Downloads
An experiment was conducted with three managements varied in tillage, crop establishments, residue, fertilizer, water to evaluate crop behaviour, irrigation water use, crop productivity and profitability of crops in an individual and in system mode. Three management systems were conventional system [TPR (transplanted rice)–CTW (conventional-till wheat)], partial CA [TPR–ZTW (zero–till wheat)] and full CA [ZTDSR (ZT direct seeded rice)–ZTW]. Rice plant growth (shoot and root) behaves similarly in CT and ZT based systems up to 40 days after sowing and after that TPR–ZTW recorded higher growth followed by TPR–CTW and lowest with ZTDSR. However, reverse trend in growth was observed with wheat in order of ZTDSR–ZTW > TPR–ZTW > TPR–CTW. Lower NDVI values were observed with ZTDSR and higher values with TPR throughout the crop season. Full CA based wheat recorded higher NDVI values than other management systems during the crop growth period. Higher wheat yield attributing character was recorded with ZTDSR–ZTW and lowest with farmer’s practices (TPR–CTW). On 2-years mean basis, ZTDSR–ZTW system produced similar crop yields to TPR–ZTW and TPR–CTW with 28% less irrigation water and 29% higher returns compared to TPR–CTW. However, TPR–ZTW improved system productivity and net returns by 8 and 37% respectively, compared to TPR–CTW while saving of 14% irrigation water. ZTDSR recorded a yield loss of 10%; while wheat registered a yield gain of 21% with ZTDSR–ZTW. CA based management practices slowed down the DSR crop growth and yield but increased same for wheat crop which is ultimately helpful in sustaining productivity and profitability of rice–wheat system (RWS) in North West India.
KeywordsRice–wheat system Conservation agriculture Plant growth (root and shoot) Normalized difference vegetation index Irrigation water use Yield attributes and yield Net returns
This research was funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) through Cereal System Initiatives for South Asia (CSISA) project, CIMMYT (International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre). The support from research platform team member of ICAR-Central Soil Salinity Research Institute (CSSRI), Karnal and CIMMYT is duly acknowledged.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest to publish this manuscript.
- 1.Ladha JK, Pathak H, Padre AT, Dave D, Gupta RK (2003) Productivity trends in intensive rice–wheat cropping systems in Asia. In: Ladha JK et al. (eds) Improving the productivity and sustainability of rice–wheat systems: issues and impacts. ASA Spec. Publ. 65. ASA, CSSA, and SSA, Madison, WI, pp 45–76Google Scholar
- 4.Sharma PC, Jat HS, Kumar V, Gathala MK, Datta A, Yaduvanshi NPS, Choudhary M, Sharma S, Singh LK, Saharawat Y, Yadav AK, Parwal A, Sharma DK, Singh G, Jat ML, Ladha JK, McDonald A (2015) Sustainable intensification opportunities under current and future cereal system of North-West India. Technical Bulletin: CSSRI/Karnal/2015/4. Karnal, Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, p 44Google Scholar
- 5.Utomo WH, Islami T, Murdoko B (1985) The effect of tillage method on the growth and yield of lowland rice. Paper presented at the National Congress of Indonesian Soil Science Society, Bogor, IndonesiaGoogle Scholar
- 6.Jat ML, Gathala MK, Saharawat YS, Tetarwal JP, Gupta R (2013) Double no-till and permanent raised beds in maize–wheat rotation of north-western Indo-Gangetic plains of India: effects on crop yields, water productivity, profitability and soil physical properties. Field Crops Res 149:291–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 7.Dwivedi BS, Singh VK, Kumar V (2011) Maximizing the rice–wheat system productivity through balance fertilizer use under Typic Ustochrept soils of western Indo-Gangetic Plain. J Farm Syst Dev 17:1–14Google Scholar
- 9.Ladha JK, Kumar V, Alam MM, Sharma S, Gathala M, Chandana P, Saharawat YS, Balasubramanian V (2009) Integrating crop and resource management technologies for enhanced productivity, profitability, and sustainability of the rice–wheat system in South Asia. In: Ladha JK, Singh Y, Erenstein O, Hardy B (eds) Integrated crop and resource management in the rice–wheat system of South Asia. International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, pp 69–108Google Scholar
- 11.Aryal JP, Sapkota TB, Stirling CM, Jat ML, Jat HS, Rai M, Mittal S, Sutaliya JM (2016) Conservation agriculture-based wheat production better copes with extreme climate events than conventional tillage-based systems: a case of untimely excess rainfall in Haryana, India. Agric Ecosyst Environ 233:325–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 13.Gathala MK, Kuma V, Sharma PC, Saharawat Y, Jat HS, Singh M, Kumar K, Jat ML, Humphreys E, Sharma DK, Sharma S, Ladha JK (2013) Optimizing intensive cereal-based cropping systems addressing current and future drivers of agricultural change in the northwestern Indo-Gangetic Plains of India. Agric Ecosyst Environ 177:85–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 14.Mishra RD, Ahmad M (1987) Manual on irrigation agronomy. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co., Pvt. Ltd., New DelhiGoogle Scholar
- 15.SAS-Institute (2008) SAS 9.2 Copyright 2002–2008. SAS Institute Inc., CaryGoogle Scholar
- 19.Jat HS, Datta A, Sharma PC, Kumar V, Yadav AK, Choudhary M, Choudhary V, Gathala MK, Sharma DK, Jat ML, Yaduvanshi NPS, Singh G, McDonald A (2017) Assessing soil properties and nutrient availability under conservation agriculture practices in a reclaimed sodic soil in cereal-based systems of North-West India. Arch Agron Soil Sci. https://doi.org/10.1080/03650340.2017.1359415 Google Scholar
- 21.Chen T, Qin J, Xu S, Huang H, Jiang L (2013) Effects of no-tillage on rhizosphere soil nutrient contents and root lipid peroxidation and antioxidative properties of irrigated rice. Res Crops 14(4):1007–1013Google Scholar
- 28.Hari RS, Anandakumar CR, Saravanan S, Malini N (2006) Association of analysis of yield traits in rice (Oryzasativa L.). J Appl Sci Res 2:402–404Google Scholar
- 29.Singh BN, Vishwakarma SR, Singh VK (2010) Character association and path analysis in elite lines of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Plant Arch 10(2):845–847Google Scholar
- 30.Kumar V, Jat H, Sharma PC, Singh B, Gathala MK, Malik RK, Kamboj BR, Yadav AK, Ladha JK, Raman A, Sharma DK, McDonald A (2018) Can productivity and profitability be enhanced in intensively managed cereal systems while reducing the environmental footprint of production? assessing sustainable intensification options in the bread basket of India. Agric Ecosyst Environ 252:132–147CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar