Cytogenotoxicological Effects of the Methanolic Extract of Dysophylla auricularia

  • Muhammad Torequl IslamEmail author
  • Eunus S. Ali
  • Shaikh Jamal Uddin
  • Swati Tripathi
  • Ana Amélia de Carvalho Melo-Cavalcante
  • Siddhartha Kumar MishraEmail author
Research Article


Dysophylla auricularia (L.) Blume. is a medicinal plant of the family Lamiaceae used in the tribal traditional medicinal practice in Bangladesh. The scientific basis of the toxicological effects of the plants is yet to be evaluated. This study evaluated the toxic, cytotoxic and mutagenic non-clinical effects of the methanol extract of D. auricularia (MDA). The cytotoxic effect of MDA was observed on eggs of Artemia salina for 24-h treatment, while the toxic and mutagenic effects in Allium cepa for 48-h treatment. Potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) and copper sulfate (CuSO4·5H2O) were used as standard A. salina and A. cepa test systems, respectively. For A. salina test, the MDA and K2Cr2O7 were tested at 6.25–100 µg ml−1, while for A. cepa test MDA and CuSO4·5H2O at 100–500 µg ml−1 and 0.6 µg ml−1, respectively. Results showed that MDA increased mortality in A. salina in a concentration-dependent manner with highest mortality (50 ± 0.71%) at 100 µg ml−1. In A. cepa test also, MDA caused concentration-dependent decrease in percentage of mitotic index with an increased number of non-dividing cells. Moreover, MDA also inhibited the growth of the meristematic region of A. cepa and caused an increase in chromosomal aberrations such as breaks, bridges, stickiness, as well as micronuclei formation in a concentration-dependent manner. In conclusion, D. auricularia exhibited toxicological responses in A. salina and A. cepa test systems that advocates that adequate precautions should be taken during its traditional usages.

Graphical Abstract


Allium cepa Artemia salina Cytotoxicity Mutagenicity Toxicity Health concern 



The authors are grateful to the Department of Pharmacy, Southern University Bangladesh (SUB) and Nuclear of Pharmaceutical Technology (NTF), Federal University of Piauí (UFPI), Brazil, for laboratory facilities to conduct this study.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest to publish this manuscript.


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Copyright information

© The National Academy of Sciences, India 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department for Management of Science and Technology DevelopmentTon Duc Thang UniversityHo Chi Minh CityVietnam
  2. 2.Faculty of PharmacyTon Duc Thang UniversityHo Chi Minh CityVietnam
  3. 3.Gaco Pharmaceuticals and Research LaboratoryDhakaBangladesh
  4. 4.Faculty of Life SciencesKhulna UniversityKhulnaBangladesh
  5. 5.Amity Institute of Microbial TechnologyAmity UniversityNoidaIndia
  6. 6.Postgraduate Program of Pharmaceutical SciencesFederal University of PiauíTeresinaBrazil
  7. 7.Cancer Biology Laboratory, School of Biological Sciences (Zoology)Dr. Harisingh Gour Central UniversitySagarIndia
  8. 8.School of MedicineFlinders UniversityAdelaideAustralia

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