Modulation of Glycine Betaine Accumulation with Oxidative Stress Induced by Aluminium Toxicity in Rice

  • Subhankar Bera
  • Arnab Kumar De
  • Malay Kumar AdakEmail author
Research Article


The present study addresses the sensitivity of rice species to varying concentrations of Al toxicity. Aluminium salt for plants was used in increasing order (240, 360, 480 µM) during short period to decipher the impact of metal stress on metabolic status with reference to oxidative damages. Interestingly, plants responded well with increase in linear root growth. In a dose dependent manner of metal concentration, plants suffered more from developed ROS (both O2 and H2O2) in root cortex. The histochemical detection of tissue lysis as detected by Evans blue and Hematoxylin was in proportionate to the aluminium concentration over control. In response to peroxide radical accumulated in the tissues, plants were characterized in a variable manner for APX, CAT and GR activities. Still, on protein polymorphism of these genes, the plants responded well with a distinct expression varied over control. In support of decreased activity, a single band expression was key feature to characterize the plants under Al toxicity. Plants though maintained a stable proportion of non-thiol content but a steeper up regulation of GR activity at highest concentration of Al was indicating for more GSH recruitment in oxidative stress. Banding patterns of APX, CAT and GR through Al concentrations appeared as bio-indices under metal reactivity in rice species. Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase was also in proportionate manner to support the synthesis of osmolyte under metal toxicity. This is more relevant with protein expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase activity and distinct bands favor the gene expression under modulation of metal stress.


Aluminium Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase Glycine betaine ROS Rice Bio-indicator 



Ascorbate peroxidase




Glutathione reductase


Reactive oxygen species


Hydrogen peroxide




Betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase


Glycine betaine


2-acetyl pyrroline


Nitrotetrazolium blue chloride


3, 3′-Diaminobenzidine


Perchloric acid




Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid




Phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride




Reduced Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate


Oxidized glutathione




Phenazonium metho sulphate


3-(4,5- Dimethyl-2 thiazolyl 2,5 diphenyl-tetrazolium bromine)


Aldehyde dehydrogenase



The present work was supported by DST-PURSE program activated to University of Kalyani and one of the authors acknowledges to UGC for Rajib Gandhi National Fellowship as a research fellow to conduct the work.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflict of interest in publishing this research work.


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Copyright information

© The National Academy of Sciences, India 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Subhankar Bera
    • 1
  • Arnab Kumar De
    • 1
  • Malay Kumar Adak
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Plant Physiology and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of BotanyUniversity of KalyaniKalyani, NadiaIndia

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