Skip to main content

Genetic Diversity Among Indigenous Germplasm of Brassica juncea (L.) Czern and Coss, Using Agro-Morphological and Phenological Traits


One hundred forty eight accessions of Indian mustard collected from 9 different agro-ecological zones covering 17 states of India were evaluated for 15 quantitative traits during the year 2012 and 2013. These accessions showed presence of highest variation for 1000 seed weight (coefficient of variation 48.57 %) while for other traits mean coefficient of variation was recorded between 4.41 % (days to maturity) to 38.55 % (beak length). First five Principal components (PC1 to PC5) gave eigen values >1.0 and cumulatively expressed 59.8 % of the total variation. PCA exhibited that plant height, leaf length, leaf width, silique length, length of main fruiting branch, 1000 seed weight, days to 50 % flowering and maturity were among the most important traits and accounted for more than 50 % phenotypic variation. Correlation studies indicated that plant height, leaf length, leaf width, days to 50 % flowering along with days to maturity should be considered while performing selection in segregating generations intended to improve seed yield/plant. While making selection for enhanced oil content in seed, leaf petiole length should be given due consideration due to highly significant positive correlation with per cent oil content. Donors for various traits were also identified on the basis of their pooled performance e.g. IC 597886 for seed yield/plant (44.6 g) and IC 383489 for oil content (43.2 %).

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  1. Nagaharu U (1935) Genome analysis in Brassica with special reference to the experimental formation of B. napus and peculiar mode of fertilization. Jap J Bot 7:389–452

    Google Scholar 

  2. Khulbe RK, Pant DP, Saxena N (2000) Variability, heritability and genetic advance in Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern & Coss]. Crop Res (Hisar) 20:551–552

    Google Scholar 

  3. Pant SC, Singh P (2001) Genetic variability in Indian mustard. Agril Sci Dig 21:28–30

    Google Scholar 

  4. Singh BP, Chowdhury RK (1983) Correlation and path coefficient analysis of seed yield and oil content in mustard (Brassica juncea). Can J Genet Cyto 25:312–317

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Chauhan JS, Singh KH, Singh VV, Kumar S (2011) Hundred years of rapeseed-mustard breeding in India: accomplishments and future strategies. Indian J Agril Sci 81:1093–1109

    Google Scholar 

  6. Yadava DK, Vasudev S, Singh N, Mohapatra T, Prabhu KV (2012) Breeding major oil crops: present status and future research needs. In: Gupta SK (ed) Technological innovations in major world oil crops, vol 1. Springer, New York

    Google Scholar 

  7. Smith JSC, Smith OS (1989) The description and assessment of distances between inbred lines of maize: the utility of morphological, biochemical and genetic descriptors and a scheme for the testing of distinctiveness between inbred lines. Maydica 34:151–161

    Google Scholar 

  8. Rabbani MA, Iwabuchi A, Murakami Y, Suzuki T, Takayanagi K (1998) Phenotypic variation and the relationships among mustard (Brassica juncea L.) germplasm from Pakistan. Euphytica 101(3):357–366

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Misra AK, Ratan S, Kumar A (2004) Germplasm evaluation of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.). J Oilseeds Res 21:248–251

    Google Scholar 

  10. Alemayehu N, Becker H (2002) Genotypic diversity and patterns of variation in a germplasm material of Ethopian mustard (Brassica carinata A. Braun). Genet Resour Crop Evol 49:573–582

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Warwick SI, Francis A (2006) The biology of invasive Alien plants in Canada. 6. Berteroa incana (L) DC. Can J Plant Sci 86:1297–1309

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Singh KH, Shakya R, Thakur AK, Chauhan DK, Chauhan JS (2013) Genetic diversity in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern & Coss) as revealed by agronomic traits and RAPD Markers. Natl Acad Sci Lett 36:419–427

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. FAO (2014) India Agro-ecological zones.

  14. Mahajan RK, Sapra RL, Srivastava U, Singh M, Sharma GD (2000) Minimal descriptors (for characterization and evaluation) of agri-horticultural crops (part I). NBPGR, New Delhi

    Google Scholar 

  15. Zhong GY, Qualset CO (1995) Quantitative genetic diversity and conservation strategies for an allogamous annual species Dasypyrum villosum (L.) Candargy (Poaceae). Theor Appl Genet 91:1064–1073

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. SAS Institute (2011) The SAS system for Windows. Release 9.2. SAS Inst., Cary

  17. Gomez KA, Gomez AA (1984) Statistical procedures for agricultural research, 2nd edn. Wiley, New York

    Google Scholar 

  18. Duzyaman E (2005) Phenotypic diversity within a collection of distinct okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) cultivars derived from Turkish land races. Gen Res Crop Evol 52:1019–1103

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Sneath PHA, Sokal RR (1973) Numerical taxonomy: the principles and practice of numerical classification. Freeman, San Francisco

    Google Scholar 

  20. Engqvist GM, Becker HC (1993) Correlation studies for agronomic characters in segregating families of spring oilseed rape (Brassica napus). Hereditas 118(3):211–216

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Dias JS, Monteiro AA, Lima MB (1993) Numerical taxonomy of Portuguese Tronchuda cabbage and Galega kale landraces using morphological characters. Euphytica 69:51–68

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Amurrio JM, de Ron AA, Zeven AC (1995) Numerical taxonomy of Iberian pea landraces based on quantitative and qualitative characters. Euphytica 82:195–205

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Schuster W (1979) Rapszucht im Aufwind. DLG-Mitteilungen 94:881–883

    Google Scholar 

  24. Malik MA, Khan AS, Khan MA, Khan BR, Mohmand AS (2000) Study of correlation among morphological parameters in different varieties/accessions of brassica species. Pak J Biol Sci 3(7):1180–1182

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Akbar M, Mahmood T, Yaqub M, Anwar M, Ali M, Iqbal N (2003) Variability, correlation and path coefficient studies in summer mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Asian J Plant Sci 2:696–698

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Nazar A, Javidfar F, Elmira JY, Mirza MY (2003) Relationship among yield components and selection criteria for yield improvement in winter rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). Pak J Bot 35(2):167–174

    Google Scholar 

  27. Larik AS, Rajput LS (2000) Estimation of selection indices in Brassica juncea L. and Brassica napus L. Pak J Bot 32(2):323–330

    Google Scholar 

  28. Aytaç Z, Kinaci G (2009) Genetic variability and association studies of some quantitative characters in winter rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). Afri J Biotech 8:15

    Google Scholar 

  29. Uddin MJ, Maz C, Mfu M (1995) Genetic variability, character association and path analysis in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Ann Bang Agric 5:51–54

    Google Scholar 

  30. Khazaei H, Street K, Bari A, Mackay M, Stoddard FL (2013) The FIGS (Focused Identification of Germplasm Strategy) approach identifies traits related to drought adaptation in Vicia faba genetic resources. PLoS ONE 8(5):e63107. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0063107

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  31. Gupta A, Mahajan V, Kumar M, Gupta HS (2009) Biodiversity in the barnyard millet (Echinochloa frumentacea Link, Poaceae) germplasm in India. Gen Res Crop Evol 56:883–889

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


Authors express sincere thanks to all partners who helped in the exploration and collection of germplasm and special thanks are due to farming communities who conserved these useful genetic resources through continuous cultivation.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Rashmi Yadav.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors also declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 57 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Yadav, R., Singh, R., Kumar, S. et al. Genetic Diversity Among Indigenous Germplasm of Brassica juncea (L.) Czern and Coss, Using Agro-Morphological and Phenological Traits. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., India, Sect. B Biol. Sci. 87, 1125–1131 (2017).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • Indian mustard
  • Correlation
  • Diversity
  • Principal component analysis
  • Donors