Carbon Sequestration in Indian Soils: Present Status and the Potential

Abstract

India’s growing self-sufficiency in food production and food stocks since independence suggest that soils have the capacity to produce. Therefore, a review of Indian soils and their capacity to sequester carbon; and the factors favouring C sequestration under different land uses is in order. Several researchers, especially those in The National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning and the International Crops Research Institute for Semi-Arid Tropics monitored the changes in soil organic (SOC) and inorganic (SIC) carbon as influenced by land use in the Indo-Gangetic Alluvial Plains and black soil regions between 1980 and 2005. The results showed an increase in SOC stocks due to turnover of greater plant biomass into the soil. Results of long-term fertilizer experiments with rice-based double or triple cropping systems indicate soil’s capacity to store greater C, and maintain higher C in passive pools and that active fraction of soil C can be used as an indicator of soil health. The inclusion of active pool/labile SOC is expected to improve the performance of Century eco-system model in predicting SOC changes under different climatic conditions. Greenhouse gas emissions from the tropical Indian soils (both zeolitic and non-zeolitic) do not seem to contribute significantly to the global warming potential. The application NPK plus FYM emerged as a cost effective technology for Indian farmers. In view of the potential of C sequestration by major zeolitic and non-zeolitic soils, the present SOC stock of about 30 Pg can be further increased.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6

References

  1. 1.

    Schnitzer M (1991) Soil organic matter-the next 75 years. Soil Sci 151:41–58

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Houghton RA, Hackler JL (1994) The net flux of carbon from deforestation and degradation in south and south East Asia. In: Dale V (ed) Effects of land-use change on atmospheric CO2 concentrations: south and southeast Asia as a case study. Springer, New York, pp 301–327

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Post E, Forchhammer MC, Bret-Harte MS, Callaghan TV, Christensen TR, Elberling B, Fox AD, Gilg DS, Hik DS, Hoye TT, Ims RA, Jeppesen E, Klein DV, Madsen J, McGuire AD, Rysgaard S, Schindler DE, Stirling I, Tamstorf MP, Tayler NJC, van der Wal R, Welker J, Wookey PA, Schmidt NM, Aastrup P (2009) Ecological dynamics across the arctic associated with recent climate change. Science 325:1355–1359

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    IPCC (2007) Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. Working group I. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Rhamstort S (2007) A semi-empirical approach to projecting future sea level rise. Science 315:368–370

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Schlesinger WH, Roberts MJ (2009) Nonlinear temperature effects indicate severe damages to US crop yields under climate change. PNAS 106:1594–1598

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Walker B, Barrett S, Polasky S, Galaz V, Folke C, Engstroem G, Ackerman F, Arrow K, Carpenter S, Chopra K, Daily G, Ehrlich P, Huges T, Kautsky N, Levin S, Macler K, Shogren J, Vincent J, Xepapadeas T, de Zeeuw A (2009) Looming global scale failures and missing institutions. Science 325:1345–1346

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    IPCC (2007) Climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Working group II. Contribution to the 4th Assessment Report. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK

    Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Cline WR (2007) Global warming and agriculture. Center for Global Development, Peterson Institute for International Economics, Washington, DC, p 186

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Lal R (2011) Sequestering carbon in soils of agro-ecosystems. Food Policy 36:533–539

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    FAO (2009) More people that ever are victim of hunger. Press Release, FAO, Rome, Italy

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    FAO (2009) How to Feed the World in 2050. High Level Consolation, 12–13 October, 2009, FAO, Rome, Italy

  13. 13.

    Jacobson MZ (2009) Review of solutions to global warming, air pollution, and energy security. Energy Environ Sci 2:148–173

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Batjes N, Sombroek WG (1997) Possibilities for carbon sequestration in tropical and sub-tropical soils. Global Change Biol 3:161–173

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Lal R (2004) Soil carbon sequestration in India. Clim Change 65:277–296

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Batjes H (1996) Total carbon and nitrogen in the soils of the world. Eur J Soil Sci 47:151–163

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Velayutham M, Pal DK, Bhattacharyya T (2000) Organic carbon stock in soils of India. In: Lal R, Kimble JM, Stewart BA (eds) Global climate change and tropical ecosystems. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, pp 71–96

    Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Bhattacharyya T, Pal DK, Velayutham M, Chandran P, Mandal C (2000) Total carbon stock in Indian soils: issues, priorities and management. Land resource management for food and environmental security. Soil Conservation Society of India, New Delhi, pp 1–46

    Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Bhattacharyya T, Ray SK, Pal DK, Chandran P, Mandal C, Wani SP (2009) Soil carbon stocks in India: issues and priorities. J Indian Soc Soil Sci 57:461–468

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Jenny H, Raychaudhuri SP (1960) Effect of climate and cultivation on nitrogen and organic matter reserves in Indian soils. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi

    Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Dadhwal VK, Nayak SR (1993) A preliminary estimate of biogeochemical cycle of carbon for India. Sci Cult 59:9–13

    Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Chhabra A, Patria S, Dadhwal VK (2003) Soil organic carbon pool in Indian forests. Forest Ecol Manag 173:187–199

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Gupta RK, Rao DLN (1994) Potential of wastelands for sequestering carbon by reforestation. Curr Sci 66:378–380

    Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Eswaran H, Kimble J, Cook T, Beinroth FH (1992) Soil diversity in the tropics: implications for agricultural development. In: Lal R, Sanchez PA (eds) Myths and science of soils of the tropics, SSSA Special Publication Number 29. SSSA, Inc and ACA, Inc., Madison, pp 1–16

    Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Bhattacharjee JC, Roychaudhury C, Landey RJ, Pandey S (1982) Bioclimatic analysis of India. NBSSLUP Bulletin 7, National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning (ICAR), Nagpur, India, p21+map

  26. 26.

    Bhattacharyya T, Sarkar D, Sehgal J, Velayutham M, Gajbhiye KS, Nagar AP, Nimkhedkar SS (2009) Soil taxonomic database of India and the states (1:250,000 scale). NBSS&LUP Publication 143:266

    Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Bhattacharyya T, Pal DK, Chandran P, Ray SK (2005) Land-use, clay mineral type and organic carbon content in two Mollisols–Alfisols–Vertisols catenary sequences of tropical India. Clay Res 24:105–122

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Pal DK, Bhattacharyya T, Chandran P, Ray SK, Satyavathi PLA, Durge SL, Raja P, Maurya UK (2009) Vertisols (cracking clay soils) in a climosequence of Peninsular India: evidence for Holocene climate changes. Quat Int 209:6–21

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Bhattacharyya T, Pal DK, Lal S, Chandran P, Ray SK (2006) Formation and persistence of Mollisols on zeolitic Deccan basalt of humid tropical India. Geoderma 146:609–620

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Pal DK, Deshpande SB, Venugopal KR, Kalbande AR (1989) Formation of di- and trioctahedral smectite as an evidence for paleoclimatic changes in southern and central Peninsular India. Geoderma 45:175–184

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Pal DK, Kalbande AR, Deshpande SB, Sehgal JL (1994) Evidence of clay illuviation in sodic soils of north-western part of the Indo-Gangetic plain since the Holocene. Soil Sci 158:465–473

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Pal DK, Srivastava P, Durge SL, Bhattacharyya T (2003) Role of microtopography in the formation of sodic soils in the semi-arid part of the Indo-Gangetic Plains, India. Catena 51:3–31

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Pal DK, Srivastava P, Bhattacharyya T (2003) Clay illuviation in calcareous soils of the semi-arid part of the Indo-Gangetic Plains, India. Geoderma 115:177–192

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Bhattacharyya T, Pal DK, Deshpande SB (1993) Genesis and transformation of minerals in the formation of red (Alfisols) and black (Inceptisols and Vertisols) soils on Deccan Basalt in the Western Ghats, India. J Soil Sci 44:159–171

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Bhattacharyya T, Pal DK, Srivastava P (1999) Role of zeolites in persistence of high altitude ferruginous Alfisols of the humid tropical Western Ghats, India. Geoderma 90:263–276

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Bhattacharyya T, Pal DK, Srivastava P (2000) Formation of gibbsite in presence of 2:1 minerals: an example from Ultisols of northeast India. Clay Miner 35:827–840

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Chandran P, Ray SK, Bhattacharyya T, Srivastava P, Krishnan P, Pal DK (2005) Lateritic soils of Kerala, India: their mineralogy, genesis and taxonomy. Aust J Soil Res 43:839–852

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Bhattacharyya T, Pal DK, Chandran P, Ray SK, Mandal C, Telpande B (2008) Soil carbon storage capacity as a tool to prioritise areas for carbon sequestration. Curr Sci 95:482–494

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Sanchez PA, Logan TJ (1992) Myths and science about the chemistry and fertility of soils in the tropics. In: Lal R, Sanchez PA (eds) Myths and science of soils of the tropics, SSSA Special Publication Number 29. SSSA, Inc and ACA Inc, Madison, pp 35–46

    Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Greenland DJ, Wild A, Adams A (1992) Organic matter dynamics in soils of the tropics-from myth to complex reality. In: Lal R, Sanchez PA (eds) Myths and science of soils of the tropics, SSSA Special Publication Number 29. SSSA, Inc and ACA Inc, Madison, pp 17–33

    Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Pal DK, Bhattacharyya T, Chandran P, Ray SK (2009) Tectonics-climate-linked natural soil degradation and its impact in rainfed agriculture: Indian experience. In: Wani SP, Rockstroem J, Oweis T (eds) Rainfed agriculture: unlocking the potential. CABI International, Oxfordshire, UK, pp 54–72

    Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Pal DK, Dasog GS, Vadivelu S, Ahuja RL, Bhattacharyya T (2000) Secondary calcium carbonate in soils of arid and semi-arid regions of India. In: Lal R, Kimble JM, Eswaran H, Stewart BA (eds) Global climate change and pedogenic carbonates. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, pp 149–185

    Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Pal DK, Wani SP, Sahrawat KL (2012) Vertisols of tropical Indian environments: pedology and edaphology. Geoderma 189–190:28–49

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    Bhattacharyya T, Chandran P, Ray SK, Pal DK, Venugopalan MV, Mandal C, Wani SP, Manna MC, Ramesh V (2007) Carbon sequestration in red and black soils. III. Identifying systems through carbon stock and bulk density of soils. Agropedology 17:34–37

    Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    Bhattacharyya T, Pal DK, Chandran P, Mandal C, Ray SK, Gupta RK, Gajbhiye KS (2004) Managing soil carbon stocks in the Indo-Gangetic Plains, India, Rice-Wheat Consortium for the Indo-Gangetic Plains, New Delhi, pp 1–44

  46. 46.

    Velayutham M, Mandal DK, Mandal C, Sehgal J (1999) Agro-ecological sub-regions of India for development and planning. NBSS Publication 35, National Bureau of Soil Survey and land Use Planning (ICAR), Nagpur, India

  47. 47.

    Pal DK, Bhattacharyya T, Ray, SK, Bhuse SR (2003) Developing a Model on the Formation and Resilience of Naturally Degraded Black Soils of the Peninsular India as a Decision Support System for Better Land Use Planning. NRDMS, DST Project Report, NBSSLUP (ICAR), Nagpur, p 144

  48. 48.

    Goswami NN, Pal DK, Narayanasamy G, Bhattacharyya T (2000) Soil organic matter-management issues. Invited Papers. International Conference on Managing Natural Resources for Sustainable Agricultural Production in the 21st Century. Feb. 14–18, 2000, New Delhi, pp 87–96

  49. 49.

    Pal DK, Deshpande SB (1987) Genesis of clay minerals in a red and black complex soils of southern India. Clay Res 6:6–13

    Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    Bhattacharyya T, Pal DK, Deshpande SB (1997) On kaolinitic and mixed mineralogy classes of shrink-swell soils. Aust J Soil Res 35:1245–1252

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  51. 51.

    Swift RS (2001) Sequestration of carbon by soil. Soil Sci 166:858–871

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    Sahrawat KL, Bhattacharyya T, Wani SP, Chandran P, Ray SK, Pal DK, Padmaja KV (2005) Long-term lowland rice and arable cropping effects on carbon and nitrogen status of some semi-arid tropical soils. Curr Sci 89:2159–2163

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  53. 53.

    Balpande SS, Deshpande SB, Pal DK (1996) Purna valley. Maharashtra 7:313–324

    Google Scholar 

  54. 54.

    Segal JL, Mandal DK, Mandal C, Vadivelu S (1992) Agro-Ecological Regions of India. Bulletin No. 24, NBSS&LUP, Nagpur, India, p 130

  55. 55.

    Pal DK, Bhattacharyya T, Ray SK, Chandran P, Srivastava P, Durge SL, Bhuse SR (2006) Significance of soil modifiers (Ca-zeolites and gypsum) in naturally degraded Vertisols of the Peninsular India in redefining the sodic soils. Geoderma 136:210–228

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  56. 56.

    Garrels RM, Christ CL (1965) Solutions, minerals and equilibria. Cooper and Company, San Francisco, Freeman, p 450

    Google Scholar 

  57. 57.

    Wieder M, Yaalon DH (1974) Effect of matrix composition on carbonate nodule crystallization. Geoderma 43:95–121

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. 58.

    Pal DK, Bhattacharyya T, Srivastava P, Chandran P, Ray SK (2009) Soils of the Indo-Gangetic Plains: their historical perspective and management. Curr Sci 9:1193–1201

    Google Scholar 

  59. 59.

    Pal DK, Sohan Lal, Bhattacharyya T, Chandran P, Ray SK, Satyavathi PLA, Raja P, Maurya UK, Durge SL, Kamble GK (2010) Pedogenic Thresholds in Benchmark Soils under Rice-Wheat Cropping System in a Climosequence of the Indo-Gangetic Alluvial Plains. Final Project Report, Division of Soil Resource Studies, NBSS&LUP, Nagpur, p 193

  60. 60.

    Pal DK, Bhattacharyya T, Wani SP (2011) Formation and management of cracking clay soils (Vertisols) to enhance crop productivity: Indian Experience. In: Lal R, Stewart BA (eds) World soil resources and food security. Francis and Taylor, Boca Raton, pp 317–343

    Google Scholar 

  61. 61.

    Pal DK, Balpande SS, Srivastava P (2001) Polygenetic Vertisols of the Purna Valley of Central India. Catena 43:231–249

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  62. 62.

    Tilman D, Fargione J, Wolff B, D’Antonio C, Dobson A, Howarth R, Schlesinger WH, Simberloff D, Swackhamer D (2001) Forecasting agriculturally driven global environmental change. Science 292:281–284

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  63. 63.

    Seneviratne G (2002) Planting trees for carbon sequestration: a reality? Curr Sci 82:777

    Google Scholar 

  64. 64.

    Woomer PL, Martin A, Albrecht A, Resck DVS, Scharpenseel HW (1994) The importance of and management of soil organic matter in the tropics. In: Woomer PL, Swift MJ (eds) The biological management of tropical soil fertility. A Wiley-Sayce Publication, Exeter, pp 47–80

    Google Scholar 

  65. 65.

    Abrol IP, Gupta RK (1998) Indo-Gangetic plains: issues of changing land use. LUCC Newsletter. March 1998, No. 3

  66. 66.

    Bhandari AL, Ladha JK, Pathak H, Padre A, Dawe D, Gupta RK (2002) Yield and soil nutrient changes in a long-term rice-wheat rotation in India. Soil Sci Soc Am J 66:162–170

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  67. 67.

    Abrol YP, Sangwan S, Dadhwal VK, Tiwari M (2002) Land use/land cover in Indo-Gangetic plains: history of changes, present concerns and future approaches. In: Abrol YP, Sangwan SM, Tiwari M (eds) Land use: historical perspectives: focus on Indo-Gangetic Plains. Allied Publishers Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, pp 1–28

    Google Scholar 

  68. 68.

    Gupta RK (2003) The rice–wheat consortium for the Indo-Gangetic Plains: vision and management structure. In: Addressing resource conservation issues in rice–wheat systems for south Asia: A resource book, RWC-CIMMYT, New Delhi, pp 1–7

  69. 69.

    Planning Commission Report (2002) Report of the Committee on India Vision 2020, Government of India, New Delhi, December, 2002

  70. 70.

    Bhattacharyya T, Chandran P, Ray SK, Pal DK, Venugopalan MV, Mandal C, Wani SP (2007) Changes in levels of carbon in soils over years of two important food production zones of India. Curr Sci 93:1854–1863

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  71. 71.

    Wani SP, Pathak P, Jangawad LS, Eswaran H, Singh P (2003) Improved management of Vertisols in the semi-arid tropics for increased productivity and soil carbon sequestration. Soil Use Manag 19:217–222

    Article  Google Scholar 

  72. 72.

    Jenkinson DS (1988) Soil organic matter and its dynamics. In: Wild A (ed) Russell’s soil conditions and plant growth, 11th edn. Longman, London, pp 564–607

    Google Scholar 

  73. 73.

    Smith JU, Smith P, Addiscott T (1996) Quantitative methods to evaluate and compare soil organic matter (SOM) models. In: Powlson DS, Smith P, Smith JU (eds) Evaluation of soil organic matter models using exiting long-term datasets, NATO ASI Series 1, vol 38. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 181–200

    Google Scholar 

  74. 74.

    IPCC (1997) IPCC (revised 1996) Guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories. Workbook, Paris, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

  75. 75.

    Paustian K, Andren O, Janzen HH, Lal R, Smith P, Tian G, Tiessen H, van Noordwijk M, Woomer PL (1997) Agricultural soils as a sink to mitigate CO2 emissions. Soil Use Manag 13:229–244

    Article  Google Scholar 

  76. 76.

    Jenny H (1950) Causes of the high nitrogen and organic matter content of certain tropical forest soils. Soil Sci 69:63–69

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  77. 77.

    Dickson BA, Crocker RL (1953) A chronosequence of soils and vegetation near Mt. Shasta California.1 and 11. Soil Sci 4:142–154

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  78. 78.

    Batjes NH (2001) Options for increasing carbon sequestration in West African soils: an exploratory study with special focus on Senegal. Land Degrad Dev 12:31–42

    Article  Google Scholar 

  79. 79.

    Saikh H, Varadachari C, Ghosh K (1998) Effect of deforestation and cultivation on soil CEC and content of exchangeable bases: a case of study in Simlipal National Park, India. Plant Soil 204:175–204

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  80. 80.

    Naitam R, Bhattacharyya T (2004) Quasi-equilibrium of organic carbon in shrink-swell soils of the sub-humid tropics in India under forest, horticulture, and agricultural systems. Aust J Soil Res 42:181–188

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  81. 81.

    Bhattacharyya T, Pal DK, Easter M, Williams S, Paustian K, Milne E, Chandran P, Ray SK, Mandal C, Coleman K, Falloon P, Powlson DS, Gajbhiye KS (2007) Evaluating the century C model using long-term fertilizer trials in the Indo-Gangetic plains, India. Agric Ecosyst Environ 122:73–83

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  82. 82.

    Bhattacharyya T, Pal DK, Easter M, Batjes NH, Milne E, Gajbhiye KS, Chandran P, Ray SK, Mandal C, Paustian K, Williams S, Killian K, Coleman K, Falloon P, Powlson DS (2007) Modelled soil organic carbon stocks and changes in the Indo-Gangetic plains, India from 1980 to 2030. Agric Ecosyst Environ 122:84–94

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  83. 83.

    Sharma RC, Bhargava GP (1981) Morphogenic changes in an alkali (sodic)soil pedon during amelioration through gypsum application. J Indian Soc Soil Sci 29:274–277

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  84. 84.

    Fertilizer statistics 1979–1980, The Fertilizer Association of India, New Delhi; http://www.indiastat.com/India

  85. 85.

    Fertilizer statistics 2002–2003, The Fertilizer Association of India, New Delhi; http://www.indiastat.com/India

  86. 86.

    Manna MC, Swarup A, Wanjari RH, Singh YV, Ghosh PK, Singh KN, Tripathi AK, Saha MN (2006) Soil organic matter in a West Bengal inceptisol after 30 years of multiple cropping and fertilization. Soil Sci Soc Am J 70:121–129

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  87. 87.

    Benbi DK, Brar JS (2008) A 25 year record of carbon sequestration and soil properties in intensive agriculture. Agron Sustain Agric 29:257–265

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  88. 88.

    Singh KB, Jalota SK, Sharma BD (2009) Effect of continuous rice-wheat rotation on soil properties from four agro-ecosystems of Indian Punjab. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 40:2945–2958

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  89. 89.

    Chandran P, Ray SK, Durge SL, Raja P, Nimakar AM, Bhattacharyya T, Pal DK (2009) Scope of horticultural land-use system in enhancing carbon sequestration in ferruginous soils of the semi-arid tropics. Curr Sci 97:1039–1046

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  90. 90.

    Swarup A, Manna MC, Singh GB (2000) Impact of land use and management practices on organic carbon dynamics in soils of India. In: Lal R, Kimble JM, Stewart BA (eds) Global climate change and tropical ecosystems. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 261–281

    Google Scholar 

  91. 91.

    Swarup A (1998) Emerging soil fertility management issues for sustainable crop productivity in irrigated system. In: Swarup A (ed) Long-term soil fertility management through integrated plant nutrient supply. Indian Institute of Soil Science, Bhopal, India, pp 54–68

    Google Scholar 

  92. 92.

    Dawe D, Dobermann A, Moya P, Abdulracman S, Singh B, Lal P, Li SY, Lin B, Panaullah G, Sariam O, Singh Y, Swarup A, Tan PS, Zhen QX (2000) How widespread are yield declines in long-term rice experiments in Asia?. Field Crops Res 66:175–193

    Article  Google Scholar 

  93. 93.

    Yadav RL, Dwivedi BS, Pandey PS (2000) Rice-wheat cropping system assessment of sustainability under green manuring and chemical fertilizer inputs. Field Crops Res 65:15–30

    Article  Google Scholar 

  94. 94.

    Abrol IP, Bronson KF, Duxbury JM, Gupta RK (2000) Long-term soil fertility experiments in rice-wheat cropping systems. Rice–Wheat Consortium Paper Series 6, New Delhi, p 171

  95. 95.

    Ladha JK, Dawe D, Pathak H, Padre AT, Yadav RL, Singh B, Singh Y, Singh Y, Singh P, Kundu AL (2003) How expensive are yields declines in long-term rice-wheat experiments in Asia? Field Crops Res 81:159–180

    Article  Google Scholar 

  96. 96.

    Majumder B, Mandal B, Bandyopadhyay PK, Chaudhury J (2007) Soil organic pools and productivity relationships for a 34 year old rice–wheat–jute agroecosystem under different fertilizer treatments. Plant Soil 297:53–67

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  97. 97.

    Bronson KF, Cassman KG, Wassmann R, Olk K, Noordwijk M, van Garrity DP (1998) Soil carbon dynamics in different cropping systems in principal eco-regions of Asia. In: Lal R, Kimble JM, Stewart BA (eds) Management of carbon sequestration in soil. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 35–57

    Google Scholar 

  98. 98.

    Regmi AP, Ladha JK, Pathak H, Pasuquin E, Hobbs PR, Joshy D, Maskey SL, Pandey SP (2002) Analysis of yield and soil fertility trends in a 20 years old rice wheat experiment in Nepal. Soil Sci Soc Am J 66:857–867

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  99. 99.

    Chaudhury J, Mandal UK, Sharma KL, Ghosh H, Mandal B (2005) Assessing soil quality under long-term rice-based cropping system. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 36:1141–1161

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  100. 100.

    Mandal B, Majumder B, Bandyopadhyay B, Hazra GC, Gangopadhyay A, Samantaroy RN, Misra AK, Chowdhuri J, Saha MN, Kundu S (2007) The potential of cropping systems and soil amendments for carbon sequestration in soils under long-term experiments in subtropical India. Global Change Biol 13:357–369

    Article  Google Scholar 

  101. 101.

    Schmidt-Rohr K, Mao JD, Olk DC (2004) Nitrogen-bonded aromatics in soil organic matter and their implications for a yield decline in intensive rice cropping. Proc Natl Acad Sci (USA) 101:6351–6354

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  102. 102.

    Olk DC, Dancel MC, Moscoso E, Jimenez RR, Dayrit FM (2002) Accumulation of lignin residues in organic matter fractions of lowland rice soils: a pyrolysis-GC-MS study. Soil Sci 167:590–606

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  103. 103.

    Neue HU (1985) Organic matter dynamics in wetland soils. In: Wetlands soils: characterization, classification and utilization, Philippines, International Rice research Institute, pp 109–122

  104. 104.

    Mandal B, Majumder B, Adhya TK, Bandyopadhyay PK, Gangopadhyay A, Sarkar D, Kundu MC, Gupta Choudhury S, Hazra GC, Kundu S, Samantaray RN, Misra AK (2008) Potential of double-cropped rice ecology to conserve organic carbon under subtropical climate. Global Change Biol 14:1–13

    Article  Google Scholar 

  105. 105.

    Six J, Conant RT, Paul EA (2002) Stabilization mechanisms of soil organic matter implications for C-saturation of soils. Plant Soil 241:155–176

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  106. 106.

    Kong AYY, Six J, Bryant DC, Denison RF, van Kessel C (2005) The relationship between carbon input, aggregation, and soil organic carbon stabilization in sustainable cropping systems. Soil Sci Soc Am J 69:1078–1085

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  107. 107.

    Standley J, Hunter HM, Thomas GA, Blight GW, Webb AA (1990) Tillage and crop residue management affect Vertisol properties and grain sorghum growth over seven years in the semi-arid sub-tropics. 2. Changes in soil properties. Soil Till Res 18:367–388

    Article  Google Scholar 

  108. 108.

    Sharma KL, Mandal UC, Srinivas K, Vittal KPR, Mandal B, Grace JK, Ramesh V (2005) Long-term soil management effects on crop yields and soil quality in a dry land Alfisol. Soil Till Res 83:246–259

    Article  Google Scholar 

  109. 109.

    Wani SP, Sahrawat KL, Sreedevi TK, Bhattacharyya T, Srinivas Rao (2007) Carbon sequestration in the semi-arid tropics for improving livelihoods. Int J Environ Studies 64:719–727

    Article  Google Scholar 

  110. 110.

    Sahrawat KL, Wani SP, Pathak P, Rego TJ (2010) Managing natural resources of watersheds in the semi-arid tropics for improved soil and water quality: a review. Agric Water Manag 97:375–381

    Article  Google Scholar 

  111. 111.

    Bhattacharyya T, Chandran P, Ray SK, Mandal C, Pal DK, Venugopalan MV, Durge SL, Srivastava P, Dubey PN, Kamble GK, Sharma RP, Wani SP, Rego TJ, Ramesh V, Manna MC (2006) Estimation of Carbon Stocks in Red and Black Soils of Selected Benchmark Spots in Semi-Arid Tropics of India. Global Theme on Agro ecosystems, Report no. 28, Patancheru 402 324, Andhra Pradesh, India: International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), pp 1–86

  112. 112.

    Pathak H, Byjesh K, Chakrabarti B, Aggarwal PK (2011) Potential and cost of carbon sequestration in Indian agriculture: estimates from long-term field experiments. Field Crops Res 120:102–111

    Article  Google Scholar 

  113. 113.

    Mohr ECJ (1922) Die Grund van Java en Sumatra. J.H. de Bussy, Amsterdam

    Google Scholar 

  114. 114.

    Sahrawat KL (2004) Organic matter accumulation in submerged soils. Adv Agron 81:169–201

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  115. 115.

    Majumder B, Mandal B, Bandyopadhyay PK (2008) Soil organic carbon pools and productivity in relation to nutrient management in a 20-year-old rice-berseem agroecosystem. Biol Fertil Soils 44:451–461

    Article  Google Scholar 

  116. 116.

    Majumder B, Mandal B, Bandyopadhyay PK, Gangopadhyay A, Mani PK, Kundu AL, Mazumdar D (2008) Organic amendments influence soil organic carbon pools and crop productivity in a nineteen-year-old rice–wheat agro-ecosystem. Soil Sci Soc Am J 72:775–785

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  117. 117.

    Witt C, Cassman KG, Olk DC, Biker U, Liboon SP, Samson MI, Ottow JCG (2000) Crop rotation and residue management effects on carbon sequestration, nitrogen cycling and productivity of irrigated rice systems. Plant Soil 225:263–278

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  118. 118.

    Martin JP, Haider K, Kasim G (1980) Biodegradation and stabilization after 2 years of specific crop, ligin, and polysaccharide carbons in soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 44:1250–1255

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  119. 119.

    Chan KY, Bowman A, Oates A (2001) Oxidizable organic carbon fractions and soil quality changes in an Oxic Paleustalf under different pastures leys. Soil Sci 166:61–67

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  120. 120.

    Jansen B, Nierop KGJ, Verstrateten M (2003) Mobility of Fe (11), Fe (111) and Al in acidic forest soils mediated by dissolved organic matter: influence of solution pH and metal/organic carbon ratios. Geoderma 113:323–340

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  121. 121.

    Jenkinson DS, Rayner JH (1977) The turnover of soil organic matter in some of the Rothamsted classical experiments. Soil Sci 123:298–305

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  122. 122.

    Jenkinson DS (1990) The turnover of organic carbon and nitrogen in the soil. Phil Trans R Soc London B 329:361–368

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  123. 123.

    Olk DC, Cassman KG, Randall EG, Kinchesh P, Sanger LJ, Anderson JM (1996) Changes in chemical properties of organic matter with intensified rice cropping in tropical lowland soil. Eur J Soil Sci 47:293–303

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  124. 124.

    Sahrawat KL (2012) Soil fertility in flooded and non-flooded irrigated rice systems. Arch Agron Soil Sci 58:423–436

    Article  Google Scholar 

  125. 125.

    Bhatia A, Pathak H, Aggarwal P (2004) Inventory of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from agricultural soils of India and their global warming potential. Curr Sci 87:317–324

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  126. 126.

    Bhatia A, Aggarwal PK, Jain N, Pathak H (2012) Greenhouse gas emission from rice–wheat growing areas in India: spatial analysis and upscaling. Greenhouse Gases Technol 2:115–125

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  127. 127.

    NAAS (2010) State of Indian Agriculture. The Indo-Gangetic Plain. National Academy of Agricultural Sciences, New Delhi, p 56

  128. 128.

    Ming DW, Allen ER (2001) Use of natural zeolites in agronomy, horticulture and environmental soil remediation. In: Bish DL, Ming DW (eds) Geology, mineralogy, properties and utilization of natural zeolites. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, vol 45. Mineralogical Society of America, Washington, DC, pp 619–654

    Google Scholar 

  129. 129.

    Patra PK, Ito A, Yan X (2012) In: Pal DK, Sarkar D, Wani SP, Bhattacharyya T (eds) Climate change agriculture in Asia: a case study for methane emission due to rice cultivation. Studium Press, New Delhi, pp 211–221

    Google Scholar 

  130. 130.

    Bhattacharyya T, Pal DK, Williams S, Telpande BA, Deshmukh AS, Chandran P, Ray SK, Mandal C, Easter M, Paustian K (2010) Evaluating the Century C model using two long-term fertilizer trials representing humid and semi-arid sites from India. Agric Ecosyst Environ 139:264–272

    Article  Google Scholar 

  131. 131.

    Milne E, Williams S, Brye K, Easter M, Killian K, Paustian K (2008) Simulating soil organic carbon in a rice-soybean-wheat-soybean chronosequence in Prairie county, Arkansas using Century model. J Integr Biosci 6:41–52

    Google Scholar 

  132. 132.

    ICAR-NAAS (2010) Degraded and wastelands of India-status and spatial distribution. Directorate of Information and Publications of Agriculture, ICAR, KAB 1, Pusa, New Delhi, p158

  133. 133.

    Abrol IP, Fireman M (1977) Alkali and saline soils, identification and improvement for crop production. Bull. No. 4. Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal, India

  134. 134.

    Sahrawat KL (2003) Importance of inorganic carbon in sequestering carbon in soils of dry regions. Curr Sci 84:864–865

    Google Scholar 

  135. 135.

    McKinsey & Co (2009) Pathways to a low carbon economy: version 2 of the global greenhouse gas abatement cost curve. McKinsey & Co., London, UK

  136. 136.

    Chu S (2009) Carbon capture and sequestration. Science 325:1595

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This review as state-of-the-art information is the outcome of many valuable discussions the authors had with Dr. T. Bhattacharyya, Principal Scientist and Head of the Division of Soil Resource Studies, National Bureau of Soil Survey and land Use Planning (ICAR), Nagpur, India. The authors thank several researchers, especially those in the National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning (ICAR), Nagpur, India, whose studies helped us with this review.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to D. K. Pal.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Pal, D.K., Wani, S.P. & Sahrawat, K.L. Carbon Sequestration in Indian Soils: Present Status and the Potential. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., India, Sect. B Biol. Sci. 85, 337–358 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40011-014-0351-6

Download citation

Keywords

  • Indian soils
  • Potential of C sequestration
  • Soil resilience
  • Greenhouse gases