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Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation

, Volume 49, Issue 1, pp 27–36 | Cite as

Development of ethosomal vesicular carrier for topical application of griseofulvin: effect of ethanol concentration

  • Chukwuemeka C. MbahEmail author
  • Philip F. Builders
  • Chukwuma O. Agubata
  • Anthony A. Attama
Original Article
  • 123 Downloads

Abstract

Vesicular carriers (VCs) offer enhanced and sustained delivery of drugs. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of ethanol concentration in VCs on topical delivery of a poorly water-soluble drug, using griseofulvin as prototype. VCs containing varying quantities of ethanol were prepared by solvent evaporation using Phospholipon® 90H (P90H) and characterized for entrapment efficiency (EE), morphology, size and size distribution, stability, viscosity and skin retention. Permeation profiles were assessed using rat skin and Franz diffusion cell and withdrawn samples analyzed spectrophotometrically. Spherical vesicles of average size of 137.70 ± 51.62 nm and polydipersity index of 0.555 were produced. Vesicle sizes decreased with increase in ethanol concentration. EE of 68.0 ± 5.6% was obtained for the optimized formulation. Differential scanning calorimetry indicated reversible perturbation of the skin layers as the mechanism of permeation. Permeation generally increased with increase in ethanol concentration. Ethosomal nanovesicular carriers encapsulating griseofulvin were formulated, which showed potentials for sustained and enhanced delivery through rat skin in direct proportion with ethanol concentration.

Keywords

Vesicular carriers Ethosomes Nanotechnology Characterization of vesicular carriers Enhanced delivery Griseofulvin 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank NIPRD, Abuja and Sheda Science and Technology Complex (SHESTCO), Abuja, Nigeria for some of the facilities utilized in this research work.

Compliance with ethical standards

Declaration of conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest in this research work. No sponsorship was received in carrying out this work and while preparing the article.

Research involving human and animal participants

No human subjects were used for this study. All the institutional and national guidelines for the care and use of laboratory animals were followed in accordance with the ethical procedures of NIPRD, Abuja, Nigeria (Number: 05:3:06), in line with the National Institute of Health guidelines, as revised, 1985, for handling of laboratory animals.

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Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chukwuemeka C. Mbah
    • 1
    Email author
  • Philip F. Builders
    • 2
  • Chukwuma O. Agubata
    • 1
  • Anthony A. Attama
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical SciencesUniversity of NigeriaNsukkaNigeria
  2. 2.Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Raw Materials DevelopmentNational Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development (NIPRD)AbujaNigeria
  3. 3.Drug Delivery and Nanomedicines Research Group, Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmaceutical SciencesUniversity of NigeriaNsukkaNigeria

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