Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation

, Volume 48, Issue 6, pp 657–664 | Cite as

Sol–gel synthesis and characterization of zinc ferrite–graphene nano-hybrids for photo-catalytic degradation of the paracetamol

  • Mojtaba Rostami
  • R. Mostafa Zamani
  • K. Mozhgan Aghajanzadeh
  • Hossein DanafarEmail author
Original Article


In this work, a kind of cubic ZnFe2O4 and ZnFe2O4–x wt% graphene (x = 1, 2, 3, 4 wt% GR) with spinel nano-structure as nano-photocatalytic activity under visible light radiation were prepared by a facile sol–gel method. The structure, surface morphology, chemical composition of nano-powders and nano-hybrids were studied using scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive X-ray, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectra and vibrating sample magnetometer spectroscopy. XRD results showed that nano-hybrids and nano-particles all the diffraction peaks agree well with to a cubic structure of the ZnFe2O4 spinel (JCPDS No. 22-1010). The particle size of all the compositions are in the range of ∼ 85–95 nm. The ZnFe2O4 nano-powders alone is photocatalytically inactive under visible light irradiation, the combination of ZnFe2O4 nano-powders with graphene nano-sheets leads to high nano-photocatalytic activity for the degradation of Paracetamol drug under visible light irradiation.


ZnFe2O4 Nano-photocatalytic activity Graphene nano-sheets Paracetamol 


Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Statement of human and animal rights

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mojtaba Rostami
    • 1
  • R. Mostafa Zamani
    • 2
  • K. Mozhgan Aghajanzadeh
    • 2
  • Hossein Danafar
    • 3
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Inter Islamic Network on Science and Technology Parks in GuilanRashtIran
  2. 2.Department of Pharmaceutical Biomaterials, School of PharmacyZanjan University of Medical SciencesZanjanIran
  3. 3.Zanjan Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology Research CenterZanjan University of Medical SciencesZanjanIran
  4. 4.Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, School of PharmacyZanjan University of Medical SciencesZanjanIran

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