In the present investigation simvastatin electrospun fibers were developed using electrospinning apparatus with drug–polymer w/w ratios of 1:1, 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4. Also solid mixtures were prepared with same ratios by employing kneading technique as conventional approach for comparison in drug release rate. Polyethylene oxide WSR coagulant 301, a hydrophilic matrix forming polymer, was used as carrier for sustained release of simvastatin. The ability of polyethylene oxide to control the drug release rate in both the formulations was also investigated. Studies were performed to characterize the optimized dosage form. Drug was crystalline in pure form. SEM surface morphology studies as well as powder X-ray diffractometry studies to developed fibers reveals that the crystalline drug was converted into amorphous form after fiber development. No physical incompatibility was found in FTIR and DSC studies of pure drug and physical mixture of drug, polymer. In vitro studies were performed in sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 0.5 % SLS. Simvastatin release was sustained over a period of 12 h in electrospinning fibers developed with drug to polymer w/w ratio 1:4 and 98.86 ± 0.42 % drug release was observed, interestingly with the same ratio there was a burst release of drug was obtained in case of solid mixtures “within span of 1 h”. Polyethylene oxide showed vast difference in drug release rate due to the techniques chosen to prepare formulations. The stability studies were also performed to the optimized product and no significant variance was observed in all the evaluation parameters. From the various mathematical models the drug release kinetics was estimated and found that the drug release followed zero order release rate kinetics with non fickian process as drug release mechanism.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Andrady AL (2008) Science and technology of polymer nanofibers. Wiley, New York, pp 81–96
Baumgarten P (1971) Electrostatic spinning of acrylic microfibers. J Colloid Interface Sci 36(1):71–79. doi:10.1016/0021-9797(71)90241-4
Berkland C, Pack DW, Kim KK (2004) Controlling surface nano-structure using flow-limited field-injection electrostatic spraying (FFESS) of poly(D, Llactide-co-glycolide). Biomaterials 25(25):5649–5658. doi:10.1016/S0142-9612(04)00054-7
Brannon LP (1990) Preparation and characterization of crosslinked hydrophilic networks. In: Brannon-Peppas L, Harland RS (eds) Absorbent polymer technology. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 45–66
Buchko CJ, Chen LC, Shen Y, Martin DC (1999) Processing and microstructural characterization of porous biocompatible protein polymer thin films. Polymer 40(26):7397–7407. doi:10.1016/S0032-3861(98)00866-0
Colombo P, Bettini R, Santi P, Peppas NA (2000) Swellable matrices for controlled drug delivery: gel-layer behaviour, mechanisms and optimal performance. Pharm Sci Technol Today 3(6):198–204
Deitzel JM, Kleinmeyer J, Harris D, Tan NCB (2001) The effect of processing variables on the morphology of electrospun nanofibers and textiles. Polymer 42(1):261–272. doi:10.1016/S0032-3861(00)00250-0
Deng-Guang Y, Li-Min Z, White K, Branford-White C (2009) Electrospun nano fiber based drug delivery systems. Health 1(2):67–75. doi:10.4236/health.2009.12012
Dhawan S, Dhawan K, Varma M, Sinha VR (2005) Applications of polyethylene oxide in drug delivery systems—Part II. Pharm Technol 29:82–96
Doshi J, Reneker DH (1995) Electrospinning process and applications of electrospun fibers. J Electrost 35(2–3):151–160. doi:10.1016/0304-3886(95)00041-8
Flory PJ (1953) Principles of polymer chemistry. Cornell University Press, New York
Halliday AJ, Moulton SE, Wallace GG, Cook MJ (2012) Novel methods of antiepileptic drug delivery polymer-based implants. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 64:953–964. doi:10.1016/j.addr.2012.04.004
Higuchi T (1963) Mechanism of sustained action medication theoretical analysis of rate of release of solid matrices. J Pharm Sci 51:1145–1149. doi:10.1002/jps.2600521210
Larrondo L, Manley RSJ (1981) Electrostatic fiber spinning from polymer melts. I. Experimental observations on fiber formation and properties. J Polym Sci Polym Phys Ed 19:909–920. doi:10.1002/pol.1981.180190601
McClelland CA, Stubbs RJ, Fix JA, Pogany SA, Zentner GM (1991) Enhancement of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductage inhibitor efficacy through administration of a controlled osmotic pump dosage form. Pharm Res 8(7):873–876. doi:10.1023/A:1015899328105
Megelski S, Stephens JS, Chase DB, Rabolt JF (2002) Micro- and nanostructured surface morphology on electrospun polymer fibers. Macromolecules 35(22):8456–8466. doi:10.1021/ma020444a
Meinel AJ, Germershaus O, Luhmann T, Merkle HP, Meinel L (2012) Electrospun matrices for localized drug delivery: current technologies and selected biomedical applications. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 81:1–13. doi:10.1016/j.ejpb.2012.01.016
Moghe AK, Gupta BS (2008) Co-axial electrospinning for nanofiber structures: preparation and applications. Polym Rev 48:353–377. doi:10.1080/15583720802022257
Peppas NA (1985) Analysis of Fickian and Non-Fickian drug release from polymers. Pharma Acta Helv 60:110–111
Pham AT, Lee PI (1994) Probing the mechanisms of drug release from hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose matrices. Pharm Res 11(10):1379–1384. doi:10.1023/A:1018975318805
Pham QP, Sharma U, Mikos AG (2006) Electrospinning of polymeric nanofibers for tissue engineering applications: a review. Tissue Eng 12:1197–1211. doi:10.1089/ten.2006.12.1197
Reneker DH, Yarin AL (2000) Bending instability of electrically charged liquid jets of polymer solutions in electrospinning. J Appl Phys 87(9):4531–4547. doi:10.1063/1.373532
Reyderman L, Stavchansky S (1995) Electrostatic spraying and its use in drug-delivery-cholesterol microspheres. Int J Pharm 124:75–85. doi:10.1016/0378-5173(95)00078-W
Robinson JR, Lee VHL (1987) Controlled drug delivery: fundamentals and applications. 2nd edn. 390. Dekker
Shen X, Dengguang Y, Zhu L, Branford-White C, White K, Chatterton NP (2011) Electrospun diclofenac sodium loaded Eudragit® L 100-55 nanofibers for colon-targeted drug delivery. Int J Pharm 408:200–207. doi:10.1016/j.ijpharm.2011.01.058
Siepmanna J, Peppas NA (2001) Modeling of drug release from delivery systems based on hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC). Adv Drug Deliv Rev 48:139–157. doi:10.1016/S0169-409X(01)00112-0
Sill TJ, Von Recum HA (2008) Electrospinning: applications in drug delivery and tissue engineering. Biomaterials 29:1989–2006. doi:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2008.01.011
Taylor GI (1964) Electrically driven jets. Proc R Soc Lond 313A:453. doi:10.1098/rspa.1969.0205
Verreck G, Chun I, Peeters J, Rosenblatt J, Brewster ME (2003) Preparation and characterization of nanofibers containing amorphous drug dispersions generated by electrostatic spinning. Pharm Res 20(5):810–817. doi:10.1023/A:1023450006281
This article dose not contain any studies with human and animal subjects performed by any of the authors. All authors (S. Betha, B. P. Reddy, M. M. Varma, D. B. Raju, and V. R. M. Kolapalli) declare that they have no conflict of interest. The authors are very much thankful to Biocon Ltd, for providing Simvastatin as gift sample.
Conflict of interest
The authors report no conflicts of interest. The authors alone are responsible for the content and writing of the paper.
About this article
Cite this article
Betha, S., Pamula Reddy, B., Mohan Varma, M. et al. Development of simvastatin electrospun fibers: a novel approach for sustained drug delivery. Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation 45, 13–22 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40005-014-0140-5
- Simvastatin fibers
- Electrospinning process
- Polyethylene oxide
- Solid mixtures
- Kneading method