Advertisement

Agricultural Research

, Volume 6, Issue 1, pp 22–32 | Cite as

Potentials of Bamboo-Based Agroforestry for Sustainable Development in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review

  • Samuel T. Partey
  • Daniel A. Sarfo
  • Oliver Frith
  • Michael Kwaku
  • Naresh V. Thevathasan
Review

Abstract

There is widespread assertion among scientists, government and development experts that bamboo agroforestry could contribute to sustainable rural development in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, there are limited available data to verify the suitability of the system in the region. In addition, the current state of knowledge and adoption of agroforestry in SSA offers very little guidance as to which type of agroforestry systems bamboo could be integrated. Here, we reviewed the potential socioeconomic and environmental benefits of bamboo agroforestry and accentuate implications on sustainable rural development in SSA. In addition, we analysed potential research areas that could be intensified, so that future developments and scaling-up of bamboo agroforestry can be rooted in robust scientific findings rather than the intuitions of governments and development actors.

Keywords

Agroforestry Deforestation Land-use systems Ecosystem services Bamboo Sustainability Africa 

Notes

Acknowledgement

This review paper was produced as an activity of BiomassWeb (grant no. 031A258A), a project funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) in the context of the initiative GlobE “Securing the Global Food Supply”. BiomassWeb is managed by the Center for Development Research, Universität of Bonn, Germany. The authors also thank the two anonymous reviewers and the handling editor for their immense contributions to improving the content of this paper.

References

  1. 1.
    Adam YO, Eltayeb AM (2016) Forestry decentralization and poverty alleviation: a review. In press, For Policy Econ. doi: 10.1016/j.forpol.2016.05.009 Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Adkins E, Oppelstrup K, Modi V (2012) Rural household energy consumption in the millennium villages in Sub-Saharan Africa. Energy Sustain Dev 16:249–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Agyekum EO, Fortuin KPJ, van der Harst EJM (2014) Comparative life cycle assessment of ghana-made bamboo-frame bicycle and conventional bicycles assembled and used in the Netherlands. In: Proceedings of the 2014 [avniR] conferenceGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Amisah S, Adjei-Boateng D, Afianu DD (2008) Effects of bamboo substrate and supplementary feed on growth and production of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus. J Appl Sci Environ Manag 12:25–28Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Atangana AR, Khasa PD, Chang S, Degrande A (2014a) Ecological interactions and productivity in agroforestry systems. In: Atangana AR, Khasa PD, Chang S, Degrande A (eds) Tropical agroforestry. Springer, New York, pp 151–172Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Babulo B, Muys B, Nega F, Tollens E, Nyssen J, Deckers J, Mathijs E (2008) Household livelihood strategies and forest dependence in the highlands of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Agr Syst 98:147–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bailis R, Drigo R, Ghilardi A, Masera O (2015) The carbon footprint of traditional wood fuels. Nat Clim Change 5:266–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Batish DR, Kohli RK, Jose S, Singh HP (eds) (2008) Ecological basis of agroforestry. CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group,  Boca Raton, FLGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Behari B, Agarwal R, Singh AK, Banerjee SK (2004) Spatial variability of pH and organic carbon in soils under bamboo based agroforestry models in a degraded area. Indian For 130:521–529Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ben-Zhi Z, Mao-Yi F, Jin-Zhong X, Xiao-Sheng Y, Zheng-Cai L (2005) Ecological functions of bamboo forest: research and application. J Forest Res 16:143–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Borland AM, Wullschleger SD, Weston DJ, Hartwell J, Tuskan GA, Yang X, Cushman JC (2015) Climate-resilient agroforestry: physiological responses to climate change and engineering of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) as a mitigation strategy. Plant Cell Environ 38:1833–1849CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chongtham N, Bisht MS, Haorongbam S (2011) Nutritional properties of bamboo shoots: potential and prospects for utilization as a health food. Compr Rev Food Sci Food 10:153–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Costanza R, Fioramonti L, Kubiszewski I (2016) The UN sustainable development goals and the dynamics of well-being. Front Ecol Environ 14:59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Damnyag L, Tyynelä T, Appiah M, Saastamoinen O, Pappinen A (2011) Economic cost of deforestation in semi-deciduous forests—a case of two forest districts in Ghana. Ecol Econ 70:2503–2510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Dumenu WK, Obeng EA (2016) Climate change and rural communities in Ghana: social vulnerability, impacts, adaptations and policy implications. Environ Sci Policy 55:208–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Effah B, Boampong E, Asibey O, Pongo NA, Nkrumah A (2014) Small and medium bamboo and rattan enterprises in economic empowerment in Kumasi: perspectives of producers. J Soc Econ 1:11–21Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ellis F, Kutengule M, Nyasulu A (2003) Livelihoods and rural poverty reduction in Malawi. World Dev 3:1495–1510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    FAO (2010) Climate smart agriculture: policies, practices and financing for food security, adaptation and mitigation. Food and agriculture organization, RomeGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    FAO (2010) Global forest resources assessment 2010. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    FAO (2013) Advancing agroforestry on the policy agenda: a guide for decision-makers. In: Buttoud G. in collaboration with Ajayi O, Detlefsen G, Place F, Torquebiau E (eds) Agroforestry Working Paper No. 1. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    FAO, JRC (2012) Global forest land-use change 1990–2005. In: Lindquist EJ, D’Annunzio R, Gerrand A, MacDicken K, Achard F, Beuchle R, Brink A, Eva HD, Mayaux P, San-Miguel-Ayanz J, Stibig HJ (eds) FAO Forestry Paper No. 169. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and European Commission Joint Research Centre. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Forestry Commission (2016) Bamboo Resources. http://www.fcghana.org/baradep/page.php?page=139&section=29&typ=1. Accessed 13 April 2016
  23. 23.
    Franzel S (1999) Socioeconomic factors affecting the adoption potential of improved tree fallows in Africa. Agroforest Syst 47:305–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Fu M, Xiao J, Lou Y (2000) Cultivation and utilization on bamboo [M]. China Forestry Publishing House, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Goldstein M, Udry C (2008) The profits of power: land rights and agricultural investment in Ghana. J Polit Econ 116:981–1022CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gray CL, Simmons BI, Fayle TM, Mann DJ, Slade EM (2016) Are riparian forest reserves sources of invertebrate biodiversity spillover and associated ecosystem functions in oil palm landscapes? Biol Conserv 194:176–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Habib G, Khan NA, Sultan A, Ali M (2016) Nutritive value of common tree leaves for livestock in the semi-arid and arid rangelands of Northern Pakistan. Livest Sci 184:64–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Habib G, Saleem M, Hameed A (2013) Mineral composition of local tree leaves for feeding sheep and goats in Kohat district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Sarhad J Agric 29:97–103Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hansen CP, Pouliot M, Marfo E, Obiri BD, Treue T (2015) Forests, timber and rural livelihoods: implications for social safeguards in the Ghana-EU voluntary partnership agreement. Small Scale For 14(4):401–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hazell P, Wood S (2008) Drivers of change in global agriculture. Philos Trans Royal Soc Lond B Biol Sci 363:495–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hengsdijk H, Conijn JG, Verhagen A (2015) Climate smart agriculture: synthesis of case studies in Ghana, Kenya and Zimbabwe, Report 624. Foundation Stichting Dienst Landbouwkundig Onderzoek (DLO) research institute, Plant Research International, Wageningen, UR, p 26Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hiwale S (2015) Sustainable horticulture in semiarid dry lands. Springer, IndiaCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hoogendoorn JC, Benton A (2014) 13 Bamboo and rattan production and the implications of globalization. Forests and Globalization: challenges and opportunities for sustainable development. http://www.environmentportal.in/files/file/bamboo_1.pdf
  34. 34.
    Hunde KK (2015) The role of agroforestry system as strategy to adapt and mitigate climate change: a review with examples from tropical and temperate regions. Clim Change 1:20–25Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Husseini R, Kendie SB, Agbesinyale P (2015) Community participation in the management of forest reserves in the Northern Region of Ghana. Int J Sustain Dev World 20:1–2Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Imo M (2009) Interactions amongst trees and crops in taungya systems of western Kenya. Agrofor Syst 76:265–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    INBAR (2014) Bamboo: a strategic resource for countries to reduce the effects of climate change. International Network for Bamboo and Rattan, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Jalloh A, Nelson GC, Thomas TS, Zougmoré R, Roy-Macauley H (eds) (2013) West African agriculture and climate change. International Food Policy Research Institute, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Khan NA, Habib G (2012) Assessment of Grewia Oppositifolia leaves as feed supplement: nutrient composition, protein degradability, N metabolism and growth rate in sheep. Trop Anim Health Prod 44:1375–1381CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Khan NA, Habib G, Ullah G (2009) Chemical composition, rumen degradability, protein utilization and lactation response to selected tree leaves as substitute of cottonseed cake in the diet of dairy goats. Anim Feed Sci Technol 154:160–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kristjanson P, Waters-Bayer A, Johnson N, Tipilda A, Njuki J, Baltenweck I, Grace D, MacMillan S (2014) Livestock and women’s livelihoods. In: Quisumbing AR, Meinzen-Dick R, Raney TL, Croppenstedt A, Behrman JA, Peterman A (eds) Gender in agriculture. Springer, pp 209–233. http://libcatalog.cimmyt.org/download/general/98958.pdf#page=220. Accessed 13 March 2016
  42. 42.
    Kusimi JM (2008) Assessing land use and land cover change in the Wassa West District of Ghana using remote sensing. GeoJournal 71:249–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kusimi JM (2015) Characterizing land disturbance in Atewa range forest reserve and buffer zone. Land Use Policy 49:471–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Leakey RRB (1996) Definition of agroforestry revisited. Agrofor Today 8(1):5–7Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Lobovikov M, Paudel S, Piazza M, Ren H, Wu J (2007) World bamboo resource: a thematic study prepared in the framework of the Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation, RomeGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Lofgren H, Richards A, El Mesbahi KM (2015) Food security poverty and economic policy in the Middle East and North Africa. Bull à conomique et Social du Maroc 159:1–31Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Man N, Sadiya SI (2009) Off-farm employment participation among paddy farmers in the MUDA Agricultural Development Authority and Kemasin Semerak Granary areas of Malaysia. Asia Pac Dev J 16:141–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Mark AA, Russell AO (2011) A comparative study of Bamboo reinforced concrete beams using different stirrup materials for rural construction. Int J Civil Struct Eng 2:407Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Martin R, Linstädter A, Frank K, Müller B (2016) Livelihood security in face of drought–assessing the vulnerability of pastoral households. Environ Modell Softw 75:414–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Masters WA, Djurfeldt AA, De Haan C, Hazell P, Jayne T, Jirström M, Reardon T (2013) Urbanization and farm size in Asia and Africa: implications for food security and agricultural research. Global Food Secur 2:156–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Mbow C, Van Noordwijk M, Luedeling E, Neufeldt H, Minang PA, Kowero G (2014) Agroforestry solutions to address food security and climate change challenges in Africa. Curr Opin Environ Sustain 6:61–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Mekonnen Z, Worku A, Yohannes T, Alebachew M, Kassa H (2014) Bamboo Resources in Ethiopia: their value chain and contribution to livelihoods. Ethnobot Res Appl 12:511–524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    MOFA (2013) Agriculture in Ghana: facts and Figures. Ministry of Food and Agriculture, Statistics, Research and Information Directorate. Accra. http://mofa.gov.gh/site/?page_id=6032. Accessed 13 May 2016
  54. 54.
    Musau Z (2016) Bamboo: Africa’s untapped potential. http://www.un.org/africarenewal/magazine/april-2016/bamboo-africa%E2%80%99s-untapped-potential Accessed 1 June 2016
  55. 55.
    Nath AJ, Das AK (2012) Carbon pool and sequestration potential of village bamboos in the agroforestry system of northeast India. Trop Ecol 53:287–293Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Nath AJ, Lal R, Das AK (2015) Ethnopedology and soil quality of bamboo (Bambusa sp.) based agroforestry system. Sci Total Environ 521:372–379Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Nath S, Das R, Chandra R, Sinha A (2009) Bamboo based agroforestry for marginal lands with special reference to productivity, market trend and economy. Agroforestry in Jharkhand, Envis Jharkhand News, pp 80–96Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Nyberg G, Knutsson P, Ostwald M, Öborn I, Wredle E, Otieno DJ, Mureithi S, Mwangi P, Said MY, Jirström M, Grönvall A (2015) Enclosures in West Pokot, Kenya: transforming land, livestock and livelihoods in drylands. Pastoralism 5(1):1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Obiri BD, Oteng-Amoako AA (2007) Towards a sustainable development of the bamboo industry in Ghana. Ghana J For 21:14–27Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Ong CK, Black C, Wilson J (eds) (2015) Tree–crop Interactions: agroforestry in a changing climate. CABI, Wallingford, UKGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Langat D, Ongugo P, Musila W (2012) Ecological and socio-economic study on bamboo farming in the western Mt. Kenya region. Kenya forestry research institute and National museum of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Opoku D, Ayarkwa J, Agyekum K (2016) Factors Inhibiting the use of bamboo in building construction in Ghana: perceptions of construction professionals. Mater Sci Appl 7(02):83Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Partey ST (2011) Effect of pruning frequency and pruning height on the biomass production of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl) A. Gray. Agrofor Syst 83:181–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Partey ST, Thevathasan NV (2013) Agronomic potentials of rarely used agroforestry species for smallholder agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa: an exploratory study. Commun Soil Sci Plan 44:1733–1748CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Patra AK (2010) Effects of supplementing low-quality roughages with tree foliages on digestibility, nitrogen utilization and rumen characteristics in sheep: a meta-analysis. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr 94:338–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Place F, Dewees P (1999) Policies and incentives for the adoption of improved fallows. Agrofor Syst 47:323–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Rao MR, Nair PK, Ong CK (1998) Biophysical interactions in tropical agroforestry systems. In: Nair PKR, Latt CR (eds) Directions in tropical agroforestry research. Springer Netherlands, pp 3–50Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Ruf F, Schroth G, Doffangui K (2015) Climate change, cocoa migrations and deforestation in West Africa: what does the past tell us about the future? Sustain Sci 10:101–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Şekercioğlu ÇH, Loarie SR, Oviedo-Brenes F, Mendenhall CD, Daily GC, Ehrlich PR (2015) Tropical countryside riparian corridors provide critical habitat and connectivity for seed-dispersing forest birds in a fragmented landscape. J Ornithol 156:343–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Singhal P, Satya S, Sudhakar P (2011) Antioxidant and pharmaceutical potential of bamboo leaves. Bamboo Sci Cult 24:19–28Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Smith P, Martino D, Cai Z, Gwary D, Janzen H, Kumar P, McCarl B, Ogle S, O’Mara F, Rice C, Scholes B (2007) Policy and technological constraints to implementation of greenhouse gas mitigation options in agriculture. Agri Ecosyst Environ 118:6–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Sohel MS, Alamgir M, Akhter S, Rahman M (2015) Carbon storage in a bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris) plantation in the degraded tropical forests: implications for policy development. Land Use Policy 49:142–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Song X, Zhou G, Jiang H, Yu S, Fu J, Li W, Wang W, Ma Z, Peng C (2011) Carbon sequestration by Chinese bamboo forests and their ecological benefits: assessment of potential, problems, and future challenges. Environ Rev 19:418–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Stow DA, Weeks JR, Shih HC, Coulter LL, Johnson H, Tsai YH, Kerr A, Benza M, Mensah F (2016) Inter-regional pattern of urbanization in southern Ghana in the first decade of the new millennium. Appl Geogra 71:32–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    SWAC-OECD/ECOWAS (2008) Livestock and regional market in the Sahel and West Africa—potentials and challenges. Sahel and West Africa Club/OECD, Paris, p 151Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Thapa B, Walker DH, Sinclair FL (1997) Indigenous knowledge of the feeding value of tree fodder. Anim Feed Sci Technol 68:37–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Thevathasan NV, Gordon AM (2004) Ecology of tree intercropping systems in the North temperate region: experiences from southern Ontario, Canada. Agrofor Syst 61:257–268Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Verchot LV, Van Noordwijk M, Kandji S, Tomich T, Ong C, Albrecht A, Mackensen J, Bantilan C, Anupama KV, Palm C (2007) Climate change: linking adaptation and mitigation through agroforestry. Mitig Adapt Strateg GL 12:901–918CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Wicke B, Smeets E, Watson H, Faaij A (2011) The current bioenergy production potential of semi-arid and arid regions in sub-Saharan Africa. Biomass Bioenerg 35:2773–2786CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Wu ZN, Fu J, Zhuang JY (2003) Study on hydrological and soil conservation benefit of Moso bamboo forest and other forests. J Anhui Agric Sci 31:200–202Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Wunder S (2001) Poverty alleviation and tropical forests—what scope for synergies? World Dev 29:1817–1833CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Wunder S, Bourner J, Shively G, Wyman M (2014) Safety nets, gap filling and forests: a global-comparative perspective. World Dev 64:S29–S42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Xuhe C (2003) Promotion of bamboo for poverty alleviation and economic development. J Bamboo Rattan 2:345–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Zaibet L, Traore S, Ayantunde A, Marshall K, Johnson N, Siegmund-Schultze M (2011) Livelihood strategies in endemic livestock production systems in sub-humid zone of West Africa: trends, trade-offs and implications. Environ Dev Sustain 13(1):87–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Zhou GM, Jiang PK (2004) Density, storage and spatial distribution of carbon in Phyllostachys pubescens forest. Sci Silv Sin 40:20–25Google Scholar

Copyright information

© NAAS (National Academy of Agricultural Sciences) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Samuel T. Partey
    • 1
    • 2
  • Daniel A. Sarfo
    • 1
  • Oliver Frith
    • 1
  • Michael Kwaku
    • 1
  • Naresh V. Thevathasan
    • 3
  1. 1.International Network for Bamboo and RattanFumesua, KumasiGhana
  2. 2.International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT)BamakoMali
  3. 3.School of Environmental SciencesUniversity of GuelphGuelphCanada

Personalised recommendations