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Stress bei pflegenden Angehörigen

Family care provision and stress

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Zusammenfassung

Hintergrund

Häusliche Pflege verursacht objektiv messbaren Stress. Einflussfaktoren sind Herausforderungen des Pflegealltags, das Krankheitsbild an sich, Dauer der Erkrankung und Intensität der Pflege, Veränderung von Persönlichkeit und Verhalten der Pflegebedürftigen. Pflegende Angehörige erleben umfassende Veränderungen ihres Lebens.

Fragestellung/Ziel

Ziel der Arbeit war es, die potenziellen Stressoren pflegender Angehöriger zu beschreiben.

Methode

Das Review erfolgte anhand der Datenbanken PubMed und PsychINFO.

Ergebnisse

Der Mangel an Freizeit, Auszeiten und Urlaub sowie eingeschränkte Sozialkontakte sind besonders belastende Faktoren für pflegende Angehörige. Die anstrengende Pflegesituation wirkt sich nachteilig auf die Gesundheit aus. Vor allem Frauen sind einer Mehrfachbelastung ausgesetzt und in Gefahr auszubrennen. Sie erleben die Pflegebelastung doppelt so stark wie Männer. Berufliche Pläne müssen ad acta gelegt werden, und erhebliche finanzielle Einbußen durch Reduzierung oder Kündigung zugunsten der häuslichen Pflege verschärfen die Lebenssituation zudem. Homosexuelle Pflegende sind zusätzlicher Diskriminierung ausgesetzt.

Schlussfolgerungen

Pflegende Angehörige benötigen adäquate Vorbereitung auf die Pflegesituation, Vermittlung von Basiskenntnissen und Information über Unterstützungseinrichtungen. Sie benötigen niederschwellige Angebote und Entlastungsmaßnahmen, um nicht selbst zu „second victims“ zu werden.

Abstract

Introduction

Domiciliary care causes objectively measurable stress. Influencing factors are the challenging nature of everyday care, the clinical picture of the illness itself, the duration of the illness, the intensity of the care, plus the changes to the personality and behavior of those receiving care. Caring relatives undergo wide-ranging changes to their life.

Aim/Question

The aim of this study was to investigate the potential stressors of caregivers.

Method

This review was performed by the use of databases such as PubMed and PsychINFO.

Results

The shortage of leisure time, time out and holidays plus restrictions of social contacts are particularly distressing factors. The exhausting nature of care work can have a deleterious effect on the health of caregivers. Women in particular are prone to multiple burdens and are in danger of burn-out. They experience the pressure caused by care twice as intensely as men. Career plans have to be abandoned and considerable financial difficulties arise due to a reduction in earnings or resignation when domiciliary care commitments have to be fulfilled. Homosexual caregivers are exposed to additional discrimination.

Conclusion

Caring relatives are in need of adequate preparation for the care situation as well as the necessary knowledge and information about support facilities. They are in need of low threshold help and respite in order not to become second victims themselves.

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Correspondence to Susanne Perkhofer.

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Posch-Eliskases, U., Rungg, C., Moosbrugger, M. et al. Stress bei pflegenden Angehörigen. HBScience 6, 27–32 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s16024-014-0234-z

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s16024-014-0234-z

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