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Table 1 Case reports of suspected or allegedly confirmed HIV transmission by human bite

From: HIV transmission by human bite: a case report and review of the literature—implications for post-exposure prophylaxis

Case Authors, year of publication (reference) Bite victim Circumstances of bite Aggressor HIV-type relatedness (victim/aggressor) assessed by authors Authors´ assessment of causality of bite and transmission
Sex, age (years), history Bite location Wound features Seroconversion or acute HIV infection Relationship with   victim, sex, age (years), risks HIV status at the time of bite CD4 cells/ml blood, VL: HIV RNA  copies/ml
1 Wahn et al. (1986) [6] Male, 8 Forearm Teeth imprints, no bleeding or haematoma Not reported Possibly seizure Brother, 5 AIDS Not reported Not evaluated Bite likely route
2 Anonymous (1987) [7] Female, 26 Leg Not reported Seronegative ~ 1.5 years before bite, seropositive ~ 2 years  after bite Fight, leading to a teeth loss of aggressor and bleeding mouth Sister, IV drug abuse  HIV infection known Not reported Not evaluated Bite most likely route
3 Vidmar et al. (1996) [8] Male, 53 Left index-finger nail Small crack and shallow wound, teeth imprints, no visible bleeding Acute infection, seroconversion 54 days after bite Seizure, bite wound on aggressor´s tongue and blood in saliva Neighbour, male, 47 AIDS High level of HIV copies in plasma 11 months earlier, at the  time of bite on zidovudine treatment Not evaluated Case shows that HIV transmission is possible by bite
4 Anonymous (1996) [9]
Liberti et al. (1996) [10]
Male, 91 Hand, arm, leg Severe tissue damage Seroconversion within 6 weeks after bite Fight, dental problems, bleeding gums Robber, female prostitute HIV infection  known Not reported Confirmed a Evidence support HIV transmission by bite
5 Khajotia et al. (1997) [11] Male, 20 Lip Cut inside of the lower lip with taste of blood Seroconversion following negative tests over 7 months after bite Deep kiss during a night club visit Call girl, one time contact HIV status unknown Not reported Not evaluated Male virgin contracted HIV by lip bite
6 Andreo et al. (2004) [12] Female, 59, widow Hand Deep wound needing suture Acute infection, seroconversion  40  days after bite Seizure, blood in the mouth Son, 31 AIDS Not reported Confirmed b Unequivocal evidence
7 Bartholome et al. (2006) [13] Female, 3 Middle finger of left hand Bleeding at the site of bite Seropositive ~ 4 years after bite Bite reason not reported, dental caries, bleeding gums Father HIV status unknown, AIDS 3 years after bite Not reported Not evaluated HIV infection believed to be a direct result from bite
8 Uzoigwe et al. (2007) [14]; Akani et al. (2007) [15] Female, 30, pregnant Upper lip Bleeding injury necessitating suturing Seronegative shortly prior to bite, seropositive ~ 16 months after bite Fight Sister in law, commercial sex worker HIV infection known, no symptoms Not reported Not evaluated HIV infection is associated with the bite
9 Deshpande et al. (2011) [16]; Jadhav 2018 [17] Married man 44, diabetes mellitus Left thumb Nail lost with raw bleeding nail bed Acute infection, VL 2,470,000 copies/ml 28 days after bite Argument, good oral hygiene, no bleeding oral lesions Foster son HIV infection known, no symptoms CD4 cells: 383, VL plasma: 17,163, VL saliva: 2,405
VL salivary cells: 161
Confirmedc Possible
10 Thomas et al. (2019) [18] Male, 56 Left cheek and thumb Deep injuries, thumb fracture Acute infection, VL 1,023,292 ( 6.01 log10) copies/ml
41 days after bite
Fight, blood-stained saliva from bite injuries Not reported, 34 HIV infection known VL 200 (2.3 log10) 29 days after the bite while on ART since 6 weeks prior to the bite Confirmedd Confirmed
11 Schürmann et al. (2020), case report of this article Unmarried man, 42, alcohol use Ball of left hand Bleeding gapping wound Seronegative 7 days after bite, seropositive 97 days after bite Argument Acquaintance, male, 23, IV drug use HIV infection known, no symptoms CD4 cells: 243, VL plasma: 176,000
5 weeks prior to bite
Probablee Probable
  1. ART antiretroviral therapy, IV intravenous, VL viral load. Cases listed in the chronological order which they were reported. Data listed where available. Further information displayed in the text
  2. aDNA sequencing showed a close genetic relationship of HIV-1 strains from bite victim and aggressor (no detailed data given), consistent with person-to-person transmission; bboth viruses belonging to HIV-1 clade B, same quasispecies of bite victim and aggressor; c91% homology of the C2-V3 region of gp120 , HIV-1C env gene with 5 NLG sites in bite victim and 6 NLG sites in aggressor, presence of single NLG site at V3 region of HIV-1C env gene in bite victim and aggressor; dHIV-1 comparison showed 99% homology of the reverse transcriptase and protease amino acids. eOn the basis of an usual mutation rate, the time of HIV-1 transmission or strain identity of aggressor and bite victim, respectively, was calculated to be 42 months prior to blood drawal for virus comparison. The factual time between assumed virus transmission by bite and blood drawal was 27 months