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Prevalence of carbapenem-resistant organisms and other Gram-negative MDRO in German ICUs: first results from the national nosocomial infection surveillance system (KISS)

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An Erratum to this article was published on 28 January 2015



Standardized prevalence and incidence data on carbapenem-resistant organisms (CRO) and, as a relevant subgroup, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are scarce. CRO-surveillance within the German nosocomial infection surveillance system (KISS) aims to provide epidemiological surveillance data on CRO colonizations and infections.


CRO-surveillance is part of a KISS-module for the surveillance of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO). MDRO-KISS methods require surveillance of all patients admitted to the ward and standardized documentation of imported and ICU-acquired cases. Data on all MDRO-carriers including colonization and infection with MDRO are collected. All presented data were routine data collected from January 1st 2013 until December 1st 2013 in accordance with the German Protection against Infection Act (IfSG).


341 ICUs submitted data on MDRO during the first year. In total, 5,171 cases of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MRGN) were identified. 848 were CRO (16 %). 325 CRO-cases were acquired within the ICU (38 %), and 373 CRO-patients had an infection (44 %). CRO-prevalence was 0.29 per 100 patients. Acquisition rate of MRGN was 1.32 per 1,000 patient days. This rate is more than doubled the acquisition rates of other MDRO under surveillance within MDRO-KISS (0.57 MRSA, 0.49 VRE). CRO-acquisition rate was 0.3 per 1,000 patient days. Incidence density of MRGN infections bacteria was 0.58 per 1,000 patient days (CRO 0.15/1,000 patient days).


To date, CRO are common in German ICUs and the relatively large proportions of ICU-acquired CRO and infections emphasize their potential to cause outbreaks. High MRGN infection rates and high ESBL prevalence data from clinical studies suggest a lack of MRGN identification in asymptomatic carriers.

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We thank all nurses and physicians in the participating hospitals who provided their MDRO data to KISS. Data have been generated as part of the routine work of the nosocomial infection surveillance system (NRZ KISS).

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Correspondence to F. Maechler.

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Maechler, F., Peña Diaz, L.A., Schröder, C. et al. Prevalence of carbapenem-resistant organisms and other Gram-negative MDRO in German ICUs: first results from the national nosocomial infection surveillance system (KISS). Infection 43, 163–168 (2015).

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