Skip to main content


Log in

First report of bacteremia by Janibacter terrae in humans

  • Case Report
  • Published:
Infection Aims and scope Submit manuscript


The genus Janibacter comprises nine different species mainly found in the environment. Only two human infections by these microorganisms have been previously reported, one by J. melonis and another one by an undescribed Janibacter sp. Herewith we report the first human cases of infection by J. terrae in four bacteremic patients. The microorganisms were isolated from two consecutive blood cultures taken from four febrile patients with several underlying conditions. All patients were treated with antibiotics, two of them with favorable outcome. Two severely immunocompromised patients died, and one was treated with an antibiotic in vitro active against the isolate. Janibacter terrae was identified by phenotypic and 16S rDNA amplification methods. This report includes also the first data on antimicrobial susceptibility of this opportunistic pathogen. Clinical microbiologists should be aware of this microorganism which can be identified by phenotypic and molecular methods.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.


  1. Martin K, Schumann P, Rainey FA, Schuetze B, Groth I. Janibacter limosus gen. nov., sp.nov; a new Actinomycete with meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell wall. Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1997;47:529–34.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Yoon J-H, Lee K-C, Kang S-S, Kho YH, Kang KH, Park Y-H. Janibacter terrae sp. nov., a bacterium isolated from soil around a wastewater treatment plant. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2000;50:1821–7.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Yoon J-H, Lee BL, Yeo S-H, Choi J-E. Janibacter melonis sp. nov., isolated from abnormally spoiled oriental melon in Korea. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2004;54:1975–80.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Kämpfer P, Terenius O, Lindh JM, Faye I. Janibacter anophelis sp. nov., isolated from the midgut of Anopheles arabiensis. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2006;56:389–92.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Shivaji S, Chaturvedi P, Begum Z, Pindi PK, Manorama R, Padmanaban DA, Shouche YS, Pawar S, Vaishampayan P, Dutt CBS, Datta GN, Manchanda RK, Rao UR, Bhargava PM, Narlikar JV. Janibacter hoylei sp. nov., Bacillus isronensis sp. nov. and Bacillus aryabhattai sp. nov., isolated from cryotubes used for collecting air from the upper atmosphere. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2009;59:2977–86.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Kageyama A, Takahashi Y, Yasumoto-Hirose M, Kasai H, Shizuri Y, Omura S. Janibacter corallicola sp. nov., isolated from coral in Palau. J Gen Appl Microbiol. 2007;53:185–9.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Li J, Long L-J, Yang L-L, Xu Y, Wang F-Z, Li Q-X, Zhang S, Li W-J. Janibacter alkaliphilus sp. nov., isolated from coral Anthogorgia sp. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2012;102:57–62.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Hamada M, Shibata C, Tamura T, Yamamura H, Hayakawa M, Suzuki K. Janibacter cremeus sp. nov., an actinobacterium isolated from sea sediment. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2013;63:3687–90.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Zhang G, Ren H, Wang S, Chen X, Yang Y, Zhang Y, Jiang Y. Janibacter indicus sp.nov. isolated from the Indian ocean. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2014;. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.059527-0.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Loubinoux J, Rio B, Mihaila L, Foïs E, Le Fleche A, Grimont PAD, Marie J-P, Bouvet A. Bacteremia caused by an undescribed species of Janibacter. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:3564–6.

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Elsayed S, Zhang K. Bacteremia caused by Janibacter melonis. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:3537–9.

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Fernández-Natal MI, Sáez-Nieto JA, Valdezate S, Rodríguez-Pollán RH, Lapeña S, Cachón F, Soriano F. Isolation of Corynebacterium ureicelerivorans from normally sterile sites in humans. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2009;28:677–81.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. Drancourt M, Bollet C, Carlioz A, Martelin R, Gayral JP, Raoult D. 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis of a large collection of environmental and clinical unidentifiable bacteria isolates. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38:3623–30.

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Methods for Antimicrobial dilution and disk susceptibility testing of infrequently isolated or fastidious bacteria; approved guideline-second edition M45-A2. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne, PA. 2013; vol 30, no 18.

  15. Lang E, Kroppenstedt RM, Swiderski J, Schumann P, Ludwig W, Schmid A, Weiss N. Emended description of Janibacter terrae, including ten dibenzofuran-degrading strains and Janibacter brevis as its later heterotypic synonym. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2003;53:1999–2005.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references


Part of this study has been supported by the Gerencia Regional de Salud, Junta de Castilla y León, Spain. Research project GRS 698/A/2011.

Conflict of interest

No conflict of interest.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to M. I. Fernández-Natal.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Fernández-Natal, M.I., Sáez-Nieto, J.A., Medina-Pascual, M.J. et al. First report of bacteremia by Janibacter terrae in humans. Infection 43, 103–106 (2015).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: