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Darmmikrobiom und Psyche: der Paradigmenwechsel im Konzept der Hirn-Darm-Achse

Gut microbiome and psyche: paradigm shift in the concept of brain-gut axis

Zusammenfassung

Hintergrund:

Das Konzept der Hirn-Darm-Achse beschreibt die Kommunikation zwischen zentralem und enterischem Nervensystem. Der Austausch von Informationen erfolgt dabei in beiden Richtungen. Die großen Fortschritte in der Molekularmedizin in den letzten Jahren führten zur Entdeckung einer enormen Zahl von Mikroorganismen im Darm (Darmmikrobiom), die die Funktion der Hirn-Darm-Achse stark beeinflussen.

Methode:

Übersichtsarbeit

Ergebnisse und Schlussfolgerungen:

Zahlreiche Studien weisen darauf hin, dass eine Dysfunktion der Hirn-Darm-Achse sowohl entzündliche als auch funktionelle Erkrankungen des Gastrointestinaltrakts zur Folge haben könnte. Darüber hinaus konnte gezeigt werden, dass die Störung der Zusammensetzung des Darmmikrobioms in der Kindheit die Reifung des zentralen Nervensystems beeinflusst und somit möglicherweise die Entstehung von psychischen Erkrankungen wie Autismus, Depression oder anderen begünstigt. Ein genauer kausaler Zusammenhang zwischen Psyche und Mikrobiom muss im Hinblick auf neue Therapiemöglichkeiten durch weitere Studien geklärt werden.

Abstract

Background:

The concept of the brain-gut axis describes the communication between the central and enteric nervous system. The exchange of information takes place in both directions. The great advances in molecular medicine in recent years led to the discovery of an enormous number of microorganisms in the intestine (gut microbiome), which greatly affect the function of the brain-gut axis.

Method:

Overview

Results and conclusions:

Numerous studies indicate that the dysfunction of the brain-gut axis could lead to both inflammatory and functional diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Moreover, it was shown that a faulty composition of the gut microbiota in childhood influences the maturation of the central nervous system and thus may favor the development of mental disorders such as autism, depression, or other. An exact causal relationship between psyche and microbiome must be clarified by further studies in order to find new therapeutic options.

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Correspondence to Peter C. Konturek.

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This article is part of a supplement not sponsored by the industry.

Danksagung

Wir bedanken uns bei Jana Ziermann für die Vorbereitung des Manuskripts.

Interessenkonflikt

Peter Konturek und Yurdagül Zopf erklären, dass keine finanziellen Interessenkonflikte in Bezug auf dieses Manuskript bestehen.

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Konturek, P.C., Zopf, Y. Darmmikrobiom und Psyche: der Paradigmenwechsel im Konzept der Hirn-Darm-Achse. MMW - Fortschritte der Medizin 158 (Suppl 4), 12–16 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s15006-016-8304-z

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s15006-016-8304-z

Schlüsselwörter:

  • Hirn-Darm-Achse
  • Darmmikrobiom
  • Stress

Keywords

  • brain-gut axis
  • gut microbiome
  • stress