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Emerging Concepts of Endotypes/Phenotypes in Regenerative Medicine for Osteoarthritis


Osteoarthritis (OA) represents a broad spectrum of different conditions. Our present understanding of phenotypes and endotypes can explain the differences in clinical manifestations, etiology, and underlying pathophysiology. Although this concept was first applied in choosing the right target population for clinical trials of disease-modifying osteoarthritis drugs (DMOADs), given that the regenerative medicine so far has not delivered uniformly successful results in structural improvement in OA, it merits a consideration to introduce the concept of phenotype/endotype in the regenerative medicine for OA toward an effort to find the right patients for these expensive therapeutics. A better understanding of molecular endotypes facilitates defining clinical phenotypes more clearly. Based on this knowledge, these patients may respond better to treatments that can preserve joints, including regenerative medicine. On the other hand, patients who are not expected to benefit from these treatments may receive earlier total joint replacement surgery. This will result in a reduction of healthcare costs, as well as a more effective approach to new drug development. An understanding of phenotypes/endotypes will contribute to the selection of suitable patients for regenerative treatment of OA.

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Funding was provided by National Research Foundation of Korea (Grant No. NRF-2020R1A2C2008266).

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Correspondence to Gun-Il Im.

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Im, GI., Moon, JY. Emerging Concepts of Endotypes/Phenotypes in Regenerative Medicine for Osteoarthritis. Tissue Eng Regen Med (2021).

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  • Endotypes/phenotypes
  • Regenerative medicine
  • Osteoarthritis