Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are sub-micrometer lipid vesicles secreted from parental cells with their information such as DNA, RNA, and proteins. EVs can deliver their cargo to recipient cells and regulate the signaling pathway of the recipient cells to determine their destiny. Depending on the cargo of EVs, the recipient cells can be changed into abnormal state or be relieved from diseases. Therefore, EVs has been spotlighted as emerging therapeutics in biomedical research. However, slow EV secretion rate is the major limitation for the clinical applications of EVs. EV secretion is highly environmental dependent and can be regulated by various stimulants such as chemicals, oxygen levels, pH, radiation, starvation, and culture methods. To overcome the limitation of low productivity of EVs, EV stimulation methods have been widely studied and applied to massive EV productions. Another strategy is the synthesis of artificial EVs from cells by physical methods such as nitrogen cavitation, extrusion via porous membrane, and sonication. These physical methods disrupt cellular membrane and reassemble the membrane to lipid vesicles containing proteins or drugs. In this review, we will focus on how EV generation can be enhanced and recent advances in large scale EV generation strategies.
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This study was supported by 2019 Research Grant from Kangwon National University; Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI) National Research Facilities & Equipment Center (NFEC) grant 2019R1A6C1010006 from Ministry of Education, South Korea; Basic Science Research Program NRF-2019R1C1C1008792, NRF-2020R1A4A1016093 from the Ministry of Science and ICT, South Korea. Figures were created with BioRender.com.
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Hahm, J., Kim, J. & Park, J. Strategies to Enhance Extracellular Vesicle Production. Tissue Eng Regen Med 18, 513–524 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13770-021-00364-x
- Extracellular vesicle
- Large scale
- Drug delivery