Applications of Computer Modeling and Simulation in Cartilage Tissue Engineering
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Advances in cartilage tissue engineering have demonstrated noteworthy potential for developing cartilage for implantation onto sites impacted by joint degeneration and injury. To supplement resource-intensive in vivo and in vitro studies required for cartilage tissue engineering, computational models and simulations can assist in enhancing experimental design.
Research articles pertinent to cartilage tissue engineering and computer modeling were identified, reviewed, and summarized. Various applications of computer modeling for cartilage tissue engineering are highlighted, limitations of in silico modeling are addressed, and suggestions for future work are enumerated.
Computational modeling can help better characterize shear stresses generated by bioreactor fluid flow, refine scaffold geometry, customize the mechanical properties of engineered cartilage tissue, and model rates of cell growth and dynamics. Thus, results from in silico studies can help resourcefully enhance in vitro and in vivo studies; however, the limitations of these studies, such as the underlying assumptions and simplifications applied in each model, should always be addressed and justified where applicable. In silico models should also seek validation and verification when possible.
Future studies may adopt similar approaches to supplement in vitro trials and further investigate effects of mechanical stimulation on chondrocyte and stem cell dynamics. Additionally, as precision medicine, machine learning, and powerful open-source software become more popular and accessible, applications of multi-scale and multiphysics computational models in cartilage tissue engineering are expected to increase.
KeywordsCartilage Tissue engineering Chondrogenesis Computer modeling In silico
No funding was received.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
There are no animal experiments carried out for this article.
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