Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine

, Volume 15, Issue 4, pp 403–413 | Cite as

Fabrication of Microchannels and Evaluation of Guided Vascularization in Biomimetic Hydrogels

  • Jaeyeon Lee
  • Se-Hwan Lee
  • Bu-Kyu Lee
  • Sang-Hyug Park
  • Young-Sam Cho
  • Yongdoo Park
Original Article



The fabrication of microchannels in hydrogel can facilitate the perfusion of nutrients and oxygen, which leads to guidance cues for vasculogenesis. Microchannel patterning in biomimetic hydrogels is a challenging issue for tissue regeneration because of the inherent low formability of hydrogels in a complex configuration. We fabricated microchannels using wire network molding and immobilized the angiogenic factors in the hydrogel and evaluated the vasculogenesis in vitro and in vivo.


Microchannels were fabricated in a hyaluronic acid-based biomimetic hydrogel by using “wire network molding” technology. Substance P was immobilized in acrylated hyaluronic acid for angiogenic cues using Michael type addition reaction. In vitro and in vivo angiogenic activities of hydrogel with microchannels were evaluated.


In vitro cell culture experiment shows that cell viability in two experimental biomimetic hydrogels (with microchannels and microchannels + SP) was higher than that of a biomimetic hydrogel without microchannels (bulk group). Evaluation on differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in biomimetic hydrogels with fabricated microchannels shows that the differentiation of hMSC into endothelial cells was significantly increased compared with that of the bulk group. In vivo angiogenesis analysis shows that thin blood vessels of approximately 25–30 μm in diameter were observed in the microchannel group and microchannel + SP group, whereas not seen in the bulk group.


The strategy of fabricating microchannels in a biomimetic hydrogel and simultaneously providing a chemical cue for angiogenesis is a promising formula for large-scale tissue regeneration.


Vascularization Microchannel Biomimetic hydrogel Hyaluronic acid Substance P 



This study was supported by a grant from the Ministry of Health and Welfare in the Republic of Korea (HI14C2143).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have no financial conflicts of interest.

Ethical statement

The animal experiment procedures were approved by the institutional animal care and use committee of Korea University College of Medicine (KUIACUC-2015-165).

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 4 (PPTX 680 kb)


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Copyright information

© The Korean Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Society and Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of MedicineKorea UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical Design Engineering, College of EngineeringWonkwang UniversityIksan, JeonbukRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.Department of Biomedical Engineering, Asan Medical Center, College of MedicineUlsan UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea
  4. 4.Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Asan Medical Center, College of MedicineUlsan UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea
  5. 5.Department of Biomedical EngineeringPukyong National UniversityBusanRepublic of Korea

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