Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine

, Volume 15, Issue 2, pp 145–154 | Cite as

In Vivo Biocompatibility and Improved Compression Strength of Reinforced Keratin/Hydroxyapatite Scaffold

  • Jie Fan
  • Meng-Yan Yu
  • Tong-da Lei
  • Yong-Heng Wang
  • Fu-Yuan Cao
  • Xiao Qin
  • Yong Liu
Original Article


A rapid freezing/lyophilizing/reinforcing process is suggested to fabricate reinforced keratin/hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffold with improved mechanical property and biocompatibility for tissue engineering. The keratin, extracted from human hair, and HA mixture were rapidly frozen with liquid nitrogen and then lyophilized to prepare keratin/HA laminar scaffold. The scaffold was then immersed in PBS for reinforcement treatment, and followed by a second lyophilization to prepare the reinforced keratin/HA scaffold. The morphology, mechanical, chemical, crystal and thermal property of the keratin/HA scaffold were investigated by SEM, FTIR, XRD, DSC, respectively. The results showed that the keratin/HA scaffold had a high porosity of 76.17 ± 3%. The maximum compressive strength and compressive modulus of the reinforced scaffold is 0.778 and 3.3 MPa respectively. Subcutaneous implantation studies in mice showed that in vivo the scaffold was biocompatible since the foreign body reaction seen around the implanted scaffold samples was moderate and became minimal upon increasing implantation time. These results demonstrate that the keratin/HA reinforced scaffold prepared here is promising for biomedical utilization.


Keratin Hydroxyapatite Scaffold Biomaterial Hair 



The present work is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant (No. 51573133), A Foundation for the Author of National Excellent Doctoral Dissertation of PR China (No. 201255), Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University (NCET-12-1063), Tianjin Natural Science Foundation (14JCYBJC17600), and National Training Program of Innovation and Entrepreneurship for Undergraduates (201510058056).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

We wish to confirm that there are no known conflicts of interest associated with this publication.

Ethical statement

This study was approved by the laboratory animal center of North china university of science and technology (XYXK (冀) 2015-0038).


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Copyright information

© The Korean Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Society and Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Composites, Ministry of Education, School of TextilesTianjin Polytechnic UniversityTianjinChina
  2. 2.Medical Training CenterNorth China University of Science and TechnologyTangshanChina
  3. 3.Laboratory Animal CenterNorth China University of Science and TechnologyTangshanChina
  4. 4.School of Textile and GarmentYancheng Vocational Institute of Industry TechnologyYanchengChina

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