Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine

, Volume 14, Issue 5, pp 495–505 | Cite as

Biological Interaction Between Human Gingival Fibroblasts and Vascular Endothelial Cells for Angiogenesis: A Co-culture Perspective

  • Nasar Um Min Allah
  • Zurairah Berahim
  • Azlina Ahmad
  • Thirumulu Ponnuraj Kannan
Review Article


Advancement in cell culture protocols, multidisciplinary research approach, and the need of clinical implication to reconstruct damaged or diseased tissues has led to the establishment of three-dimensional (3D) test systems for regeneration and repair. Regenerative therapies, including dental tissue engineering, have been pursued as a new prospect to repair and rebuild the diseased/lost oral tissues. Interactions between the different cell types, growth factors, and extracellular matrix components involved in angiogenesis are vital in the mechanisms of new vessel formation for tissue regeneration. In vitro pre-vascularization is one of the leading scopes in the tissue-engineering field. Vascularization strategies that are associated with co-culture systems have proved that there is communication between different cell types with mutual beneficial effects in vascularization and tissue regeneration in two-dimensional or 3D cultures. Endothelial cells with different cell populations, including osteoblasts, smooth muscle cells, and fibroblasts in a co-culture have shown their ability to advocate pre-vascularization. In this review, a co-culture perspective of human gingival fibroblasts and vascular endothelial cells is discussed with the main focus on vascularization and future perspective of this model in regeneration and repair.


Co-culture Endothelial cells Gingival fibroblast Tissue engineering Vascularization 



This review was supported by Universiti Sains Malaysia through the Research University Grant (RU-1001/PPSG/812168).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have no financial conflicts of interest.

Ethical statement

There are no animal experiments carried out for this review article.


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Copyright information

© The Korean Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Society and Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nasar Um Min Allah
    • 1
  • Zurairah Berahim
    • 1
  • Azlina Ahmad
    • 1
  • Thirumulu Ponnuraj Kannan
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Dental SciencesUniversiti Sains MalaysiaKubang KerianMalaysia
  2. 2.Human Genome Centre, School of Medical SciencesUniversiti Sains MalaysiaKubang KerianMalaysia

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