Comparison of the retention rates of thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin between normal and high-oleic peanuts after roasting


This study investigated the amounts of thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin in normal and high-oleic peanuts and compared the retention rates after roasting via HPLC analysis. Method validation showed a high linearity (r2 > 0.99), and the limits of detection and quantification were 0.001–0.038 and 0.002–0.115 µg/mL, respectively. Accuracy and precision were confirmed using standard reference materials. Thiamin content was not significantly different between the normal and high-oleic cultivars; however, it significantly decreased in the roasted peanut cultivars. Although there were no significant differences in riboflavin between the cultivars, a significantly increased amount of riboflavin was observed in the roasted peanuts, which confirms that riboflavin is highly stable to thermal treatment such as roasting. With only a small difference between the cultivars, niacin showed a decreased retention rate with roasting in normal cultivars, but a significantly increased retention rate with roasting in high-oleic cultivars. The amount of thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin present in peanuts and their retention rates after roasting showed variations among the cultivars. This study provides basic data on the water-soluble vitamins in raw and roasted peanuts.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2


  1. 1.

    Woodroof JG (1983) Peanuts: production, processing, products, 3rd edn. AVI Pub. Co., Westport, pp 1–36

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Norden AJ, Gorbet DW, Knauft DA, Young CT (1987) Variability in oil quality among peanut genotypes in the Florida breeding program. Peanut Sci 14:7–11

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Bishi SK, Kumar L, Mahatma MK, Khatediya N, Chauhan SM, Misra JB (2015) Quality traits of Indian peanut cultivars and their utility as nutritional and functional food. Food Chem 176:107–114

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Moore KM, Knauft DA (1989) The inheritance of high oleic acid in peanut. J Hered 80:252–253

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Davis JP, Dean LO, Faircloth WH (2008) Physical and chemical characterizations of normal and high-oleic oils from nine commercial cultivars of peanut. J Am Oil Chem Soc 85:235–243

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Knauft DA, Moore KM, Gorbet DW (1993) Further studies on the inheritance of fatty acid composition in peanut. Peanut Sci 20:74–76

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Jung S, Swift D, Sengoku E, Patel M, Teulé F, Powell G, Moore K, Abbott A (2000) The high oleate trait in the cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Ι. Isolation and characterization of two genes encoding microsomal oleoyl-PC desaturases. Mol Gen Genet 263:796–805

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Lopez Y, Nadaf HL, Smith OD, Connell JP, Reddy AS, Fritz AK (2000) Isolation and characterization of the Δ12-fatty acid desaturase in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and search for polymorphisms for the high oleate trait in Spanish market-type lines. Theor Appl Genet 101:1131–1138

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Patel M, Jung S, Moore K, Powel G, Ainsworth C, Abbott A (2004) High-oleate peanuts mutants result from a MITE insertion into the FAD2 gene. Theor Appl Genet 108:1492–1502

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Lim HJ, Kim MS, Kim DS, Kim HS, Pae SB, Kim JK, Shin EC (2017) Comparison of lipid constituents and oxidative properties between normal and high-oleic peanuts grown in Korea. Korean J Food Sci Technol 49:235–241

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Talcott ST, Passeretti S, Duncan CE, Gorbet DW (2005) Polyphenolic content and sensory properties of normal and high oleic acid peanuts. Food Chem 90:379–388

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Lee JH, Kim SG, Lee DU, Park SJ, Lee JH, Lee KP, Kim DS, Choi SW, Baik MY (2005) Effects of temperature and relative humidity on water soluble vitamin contents in commercial vitamin tablet. Korean J Food Sci Technol 37:1028–1034

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Kwak BM, Kim SH, Kim KS, Lee KW, Ahn JH, Jang CH (2006) Composition of vitamin A, E, B1 and B2 contents in Korean cow’s raw milk in Korea. Korean J Food Sci Ani Resour 26:245–251

    Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Ei-Hazmi MAF, Warsy AS (1987) Riboflavin status in a Saudi population: a study in Riyadh. Ann Nutr Metab 31:253–258

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Jackson JA, Bums MJ (1974) Effects of cystine, niacin and taurine on cholesterol concentration in the Japanese quail with comments on bile acid metabolism. Comp Biochem Physiol A Comp Physiol 48:61–68

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Ahn MS (1999) A study on the changes in physico-chemical properties of vegetables by Korean traditional cooking methods. Korean J Diet Cult 14:177–188

    Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Chung HK, Yoon KS, Woo N (2016) Effects of cooking method on the vitamin and mineral contents in frequently used vegetables. Korean J Food Cook Sci 32:270–278

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Andersen PC, Gorbet DW (2002) Influence of year and planting date on fatty acid chemistry of high oleic acid and normal peanut genotypes. J Agric Food Chem 50:1298–1305

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Pattee HE, Isleib TG, Moore KM, Gorbet DW, Giesbrecht FG (2002) Effect of high-oleic trait and paste storage variables on sensory attribute stability of roasted peanuts. J Agric Food Chem 50:7366–7370

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Isleib TG, Pattee HE, Sanders TH, Hendrix KW, Dean LO (2006) Compositional and sensory comparisons between normal- and high-oleic peanuts. J Agric Food Chem 54:1759–1763

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Lim HJ, Kim DS, Pan JH, Pae SB, Kim HS, Shin EC, Kim JK (2017) Characterization of physicochemical and sensory attributes of a novel high-oleic peanut oil cultivar (Arachis hypogaea ssp. Fastigiata L.). Appl Biol Chem 60:653–657

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Kim GP, Lee J, Ahn KG, Hwang YS, Choi Y, Chun J, Chang WS, Choung MG (2014) Differential responses of B vitamins in black soybean seeds. Food Chem 153:101–108

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    MFDS (2011) Korea food code. Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, Chungbuk, pp 10173–10186

    Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Kim SE, Kim JH, Lee SW, Lee MJ (2013) A study of roasting conditions on benzo[a]pyrene content in coffee beans. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 42:134–138

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Albalá-Hurtado S, Veciana-Nogués MT, Izquierdo-Pulido M, Mariné-Font A (1997) Determination of water-soluble vitamins in infant milk by high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr A 778:247–253

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Kim SH, Kim JH, Lee HJ, Oh JM, Lee SH, Bahn KN, Seo IW, Lee YJ, Lee JH, Kang TS (2015) Simultaneous determination of water soluble vitamin B group in health functional foods ets by HPLC. J Food Hyg Saf 30:143–149

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    USDA (2018) United States Department of Agriculture National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 28. Web. Accessed at 01 April 2018

  28. 28.

    Shin EC, Pegg RB, Phillips RD, Eitenmiller RR (2010) Commercial peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivars in the United States: phytosterol composition. J Agric Food Chem 58:9137–9146

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Shin EC, Craft BD, Pegg RD, Eitenmiller RR (2010) Chemometric approach to fatty acid profiles in Runner-type peanut cultivars by principal component analysis (PCA). Food Chem 118:1262–1270

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Shin EC, Huang YZ, Pegg RB, Phillips RD, Eitenmiller RR (2009) Commercial runner peanut cultivars in the United States: tocopherol composition. J Agric Food Chem 57:10289–10295

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Dwivedi BK, Arnold RG (1973) Chemistry of thiamin degradation in food products and model systems. Rev J Agric Food Chem 21:54–60

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Hur JY, Hwang IK (2002) The stability of water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins in milk by heat treatments. Korean J Soc Food Cook Sci 18:487–494

    Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Fujimake M, Morita M (1968) Radiation chemistry of foods. I. Reaction rate constants of some foods constituents with hydrated electrons and hydroxyl radical. Agric Biol Chem 32:574–579

    Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Fox JB, Thayer DW, Jenkins EK, Philips JG, Ackerman SA, Beecher GR, Holden JM, Morrow FD, Quirbach DM (1989) Effect of gamma irradiation on the B vitamin of pork chops and chicken breasts. Int J Radiat Biol 55:689–703

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Russel LF, Vanderslice JT (1990) A comprehensive review of vitamin B2 analytical methodology. J Micronutr Anal 8:257–310

    Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Hoppel C, Dimarco JP, Tandler B (1979) Riboflavin and rat hepatic cell structure and function, mitocondrial oxidative metabolism in deficiency states. J Biol Chem 254:4164–4170

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Shaw JH, Phillips PH (1941) The pathology of riboflavin deficiency in the rat. J Nutr 22:345–358

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Bruhlmann U, Hayon E (1974) One-electron redox reaction of water soluble vitamins. I. Nicotinamide (vitamin B5) and related compounds. J Am Chem Soc 96:6169–6175

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Kim HS, Jang DK, Woo DK, Woo KL (2002) Comparison of preparation methods for water soluble vitamin analysis in foods by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Korean J Food Sci Technol 34:141–150

    Google Scholar 

Download references


This research was supported by a Grant (17162MFDS082) from Ministry of Food and Drug Safety in 2018.

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Eui-Cheol Shin.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kim, DS., Kim, H.S., Hong, S.J. et al. Comparison of the retention rates of thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin between normal and high-oleic peanuts after roasting. Appl Biol Chem 61, 449–458 (2018).

Download citation


  • High-oleic peanuts
  • Niacin
  • Retention rate
  • Riboflavin
  • Thiamin