Applied Biological Chemistry

, Volume 61, Issue 1, pp 91–105 | Cite as

Effect of milling degrees on volatile profiles of raw and cooked black rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Sintoheugmi)

  • Sehun Choi
  • Han-Seok Seo
  • Kwang Rag Lee
  • Sunghee Lee
  • Jihyun Lee


Volatile compounds in raw and cooked black rice (cv. Sintoheugmi) samples with different degrees of milling (step 0, 0%; step 1, 4.2%; and step 2, 10.5%, w/w) were investigated by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. A total of 101 volatile compounds were found. Among them, 44 compounds found in raw black rice were absent in cooked black rice and 20 compounds were newly formed in cooked black rice. The 8 identified major odor-active volatile compounds in raw and cooked black rice included 3 phenols (guaiacol, 4-vinylphenol, and 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol), 2 benzenes (benzaldehyde and p-xylene), 2 furans (2-butylfuran and 2-pentylfuran), and 1 terpene (calamenene). Additionally, fatty acid oxidation products such as hexanal, 2-nonenal, octanal, and 2-pentylfuran were found in raw and cooked black rice samples. The relative concentrations of these volatile compounds were significantly higher in step 0 than in step 2 of raw and cooked black rice (p < 0.05). Partially milled cooked black rice (i.e., step 1) contained ~ 80% guaiacol (a favorable unique black rice flavor) of unpolished rice (step 0), with similar levels of several lipid oxidation indicator volatile products (e.g., 2-nonenal and 2-pentyl furan) of fully milled rice (step 2). Thus, partially milled black rice should be consumed rather than fully milled black rice.


Black rice Cooked rice GC/MS Guaiacol Lipid oxidation Rice Solid-phase microextraction Volatile 



This work was supported by the Korea Institute of Planning and Evaluation for Technology in Food, Agriculture, Forestry (IPET) through the High Value-added Food Technology Development Program. This study was funded by the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (MAFRA) (316059-02).


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Copyright information

© The Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Food Science and TechnologyChung-Ang UniversityAnseongRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of Food ScienceUniversity of ArkansasFayettevilleUSA
  3. 3.Prepared Food Development TeamR&D center, NongshimSeoulRepublic of Korea

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