Applied Biological Chemistry

, Volume 61, Issue 1, pp 125–130 | Cite as

Validation protocol for whole-body dosimetry in an agricultural exposure study

  • Jiho Lee
  • Eunhye Kim
  • Yongho Shin
  • Jonghwa Lee
  • Junghak Lee
  • Wolfgang Maasfeld
  • Jeong-Han Kim


Agricultural workers exposed to pesticides can experience adverse health impacts depending on toxicity and exposure amount. Whole-body dosimetry (WBD) is the most reliable, practical, and realistic method for measuring exposure. Since validation of analytical and experimental methodologies is critical for quantitative determination of exposure, we conducted a validation procedure to design an essential protocol for WBD exposure studies. Using the fungicide kresoxim-methyl, matrix-matched standards were prepared with various matrices including outer cloth, inner cloth, washing solution for gloves and hands, gauze, and glass fiber filter (IOM sampler) to determine the instrumental limit of quantitation for high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) (2 ng) and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) (10 pg). Method limits of quantitation (MLOQ) were also set for HPLC (0.1 mg/L) and LC–MS/MS (0.005 mg/L). We observed good analysis repeatability (coefficient of variation < 6%), and the linearity of the calibration curves was reasonable (r 2 > 0.998) in the range of 0.001–10 mg/L in various matrices. Recovery tests were carried out at three levels of concentration (MLOQ, 10 MLOQ, and 100 MLOQ) and resulted in good recoveries (72.7–105.6%). We did not observe breakthrough of the compound in tests of holding capacity for glass fiber pesticide filters. The procedures established in the present study are applicable as an essential, comprehensive protocol for exposure assessment studies using WBD.


Exposure IOM sampler Kresoxim-methyl Method validation Pesticide Whole-body dosimetry 



This study was financially supported by the Rural Development Administration (PJ009948).


  1. 1.
    Liu KH, Kim CS, Kim JH (2003) Human exposure assessment to mancozeb during treatment of mandarin fields. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 70:336–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ramos LM, Querejeta GA, Flores AP, Hughes EA, Zalts A, Montserrat JM (2010) Potential dermal exposure in greenhouses for manual sprayers: analysis of the mix/load, application and re-entry stages. Sci Total Environ 408:4062–4068CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Moon JK, Park S, Kim E, Lee H, Kim JH (2013) Risk assessment of the exposure of insecticide operators to fenvalerate during treatment in apple orchards. J Agric Food Chem 61:307–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ji-Youn B, Hoon C, Joon-Kwan M, Hee-Won P, Kwang-Hyeon L, Yang-Bin I, Byeoung-Soo P, Jeong-Han K (2005) Risk assessment of human exposure to methidathion during harvest of cucumber in green house. Toxicol Res 21:297–301Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Choi H, Moon JK, Liu KH, Park HW, Ihm YB, Park BS, Kim JH (2006) Risk assessment of human exposure to cypermethrin during treatment of mandarin fields. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 50:437–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kim E, Lee H, Hong S, Park K-H, An X, Kim J-H (2012) Comparative exposure of operators to fenthion during treatment in paddy field. J Korean Soc Appl Biol Chem 55:827–830CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kim E, Moon J-K, Choi H, Hong S-M, Lee D-H, Lee H, Kim J-H (2012) Exposure and risk assessment of insecticide methomyl for applicator during treatment on apple orchard. J Korean Soc Appl Biol Chem 55:95–100Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Choi H, Moon J-K, Kim J-H (2013) Assessment of the exposure of workers to the insecticide imidacloprid during application on various field crops by a hand-held power sprayer. J Agric Food Chem 61:10642–10648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kim E, Moon J-K, Lee H, Kim S, Hwang Y-J, Kim B-J, Lee J, Lee D-H, Kim J-H (2013) Exposure and risk assessment of operators to insecticide acetamiprid during treatment on apple orchard. Korean J Hortic Sci Technol 31:239–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kim E, Moon JK, Choi H, Kim JH (2015) Probabilistic exposure assessment for applicators during treatment of the fungicide kresoxim-methyl on an apple orchard by a speed sprayer. J Agric Food Chem 63:10366–10371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Capri E, Alberici R, Glass CR, Minuto G, Trevisan M (1999) Potential operator exposure to procymidone in greenhouses. J Agric Food Chem 47:4443–4449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hughes EA, Flores AP, Ramos LM, Zalts A, Glass CR, Montserrat JM (2008) Potential dermal exposure to deltamethrin and risk assessment for manual sprayers: influence of crop type. Sci Total Environ 391:34–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kim E, Lee J, Sung J, Lee J, Shin Y, Kim J-H (2014) Exposure and risk assessment for operator exposure to insecticide acetamiprid during water melon cultivation in greenhouse using whole body dosimetry. Korean J Pestic Sci 18:247–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cao L, Chen B, Zheng L, Wang D, Liu F, Huang Q (2015) Assessment of potential dermal and inhalation exposure of workers to the insecticide imidacloprid using whole-body dosimetry in China. J Environ Sci (China) 27:139–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Atabila A, Phung DT, Hogarh JN, Osei-Fosu P, Sadler R, Connell D, Chu C (2017) Dermal exposure of applicators to chlorpyrifos on rice farms in Ghana. Chemosphere 178:350–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Thouvenin I, Bouneb F, Mercier T (2017) Operator dermal exposure and protection provided by personal protective equipment and working coveralls during mixing/loading, application and sprayer cleaning in vineyards. Int J Occup Saf Ergon 23:229–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Eunhye K, Hyeri L, Hoon C, Joon-Kwan M, Soonsung H, Mihye J, Kyung-Hun P, Hyomin L, Jeong-Han K (2011) Methodology for quantitative monitoring of agricultural worker exposure to pesticides. Korean J Pestic Sci 15:507–528Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hoon C, Jeong-Han K (2014) Risk assessment of agricultural worker’s exposure to fungicide thiophanate-methyl during treatment in green pepper, cucumber and apple fields. J Appl Biol Chem 57:73–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lee H, Kim E, Moon J-K, Zhu Y-Z, Do J-A, Oh J-H, Kwon K, Lee YD, Kim J-H (2012) Establishment of analytical method for cyazofamid residue in apple, mandarin, korean cabbage, green pepper, potato and soybean. J Korean Soc Appl Biol Chem 55:241–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lee H, Riu M, Kim E, Moon J-K, Choi H, Do J-A, Oh J-H, Kwon K-S, Lee YD, Kim J-H (2013) A single residue method for the determination of chlorpropham in representative crops using high performance liquid chromatography. J Korean Soc Appl Biol Chem 56:181–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lee J, Kim L, Shin Y, Lee J, Lee J, Kim E, Moon JK, Kim JH (2017) Rapid and simultaneous analysis of 360 pesticides in brown rice, spinach, orange, and potato using microbore GC–MS/MS. J Agric Food Chem 65:3387–3395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lee J, Kim E, Lee J, Shin Y, Maasfeld W, Choi H, Moon J-K, Lee H, Kim J-H (2015) Evaluation for application of IOM sampler for agricultural farmer’s inhalation exposure to kresoxim-methyl and fenthion. Korean J Pestic Sci 19:230–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Research Institute of Agriculture and Life SciencesSeoul National UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Bayer CropScienceMonheimGermany

Personalised recommendations