Risk and exposure assessment for agricultural workers during treatment of cucumber with the fungicide fenarimol in greenhouses
The exposure pattern and potential risk of fenarimol emulsifiable concentrate to agricultural workers were investigated during the preparation of the pesticide suspension and the application of the prepared suspension to the cucumber in a greenhouse environment. The dermal exposure to fenarimol was 0.17 ± 0.11 mg (0.001 ± 0.001% of prepared active ingredient) for mixing/loading and 0.22 ± 0.15 mg (0.003 ± 0.002% of applied active ingredient) for application, respectively. The most exposed part of body was the hand (100%) during mixing/loading, whereas the primary sites during application were the back and legs. In particular, 54.8% of dermal exposure occurred on the shins. The inhalation exposure to fenarimol was detected as 3.7 ± 1.0 μg for the applicator. In comparison with the exposure patterns to pesticides for agricultural workers in greenhouse reported in previous studies, lower dermal and inhalation exposures to fenarimol were observed during mixing/loading and application, respectively. The results of the risk assessment demonstrated that the possibility of risk to fenarimol exposure was lowest during mixing/loading and application in the greenhouse environment.
KeywordsCucumber Exposure Fenarimol Greenhouse
This work was supported in part by the “Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science and Technology Development” (Project PJ009948) (Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea) and Brain Korea 21 project.
- 6.KCPA (2012) Agrochemical year book. Korea Crop Protection Association, Seoul, Republic of KoreaGoogle Scholar
- 9.Kim E, Moon JK, Choi H, Hong SM, Lee DH, Lee HM, Kim JH (2012) Exposure and risk assessment of insecticide methomyl for applicator during treatment on apple orchard. J Korean Soc Appl Biol Chem 55:95–100Google Scholar
- 14.Turner JA (2015) The pesticide manual, 17th edn. British Crop Protection Council, HampshireGoogle Scholar
- 15.Kim JH, Kim K, Lee HG (1998) Measurement of human exposure to pesticide. AgroBiotech 5:72–76Google Scholar
- 16.Kim E, Lee H, Choi H, Moon JK, Hong S, Jeong M, Park KH, Lee HM, Kim JH (2011) Methodology for quantitative monitoring of agricultural worker exposure to pesticides. Korean J Pestic Sci 15:507–528Google Scholar
- 17.EC (2007) Review report for the active substance fenarimol finalized in the standing committee on the food chain and animal health at its meeting on 3 March 2006 in view of the inclusion of fenarimol in Annex I of directive 91/414/EEC. European Commission, Brussels, Belgium, p 13Google Scholar
- 22.van Hemmen JJ (1992) Agricultural pesticide exposure database for risk assessment. In: Ware GW (ed) Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology. Springer, New York, pp 1–85Google Scholar