Applied Biological Chemistry

, Volume 60, Issue 3, pp 287–297 | Cite as

Biodegradation of endosulfan and pendimethalin by three strains of bacteria isolated from pesticides-polluted soils in the Sudan

  • Abd Elaziz Sulieman Ahmed Ishag
  • Azhari Omer Abdelbagi
  • Ahmed Mohammed Ali Hammad
  • Elsiddig Ahmed Elmustafa Elsheikh
  • Osama Elgilani Elsaid
  • Jang-Hyun Hur


Biodegradation of endosulfan (α and β) and pendimethalin by Bacillus safensis strain FO-36bT, Bacillus subtilis subsp. inaquosorum strain KCTC 13429T and Bacillus cereus strain ATCC14579T isolated from pesticides-polluted soil was studied in mineral salt medium. Endosulfan and pendimethalin were incubated with the three bacterial strains with samples drawn at various intervals for GC analysis. Representative samples were subject to GC–MS analysis. The loss in the initial concentrations, 0.663 mM (α endosulfan), 0.319 mM (β endosulfan) and 1.423 mM (pendimethalin), was monitored and used to compute the half-lives following biphasic model. Removal percentage of endosulfan and pendimethalin in the media inoculated with the bacterial strains ranged from 24 to 95% (α endosulfan), 21–91% (β endosulfan) and 51–97% (pendimethalin), respectively. Despite the significant decrease in starting material in B. safensis cultures, no metabolites were detected, whereas two major metabolites of endosulfan, 1,2,3,4,7,7-hexachloro-5,6-dihydroxybicyclo{2.2.1}-2-heptene and 1,2,3,4,7,7-hexachloro-formaldehyde-6-methylbicyclo{2.2.1}-2-heptene, were detected in the B. subtilis cultures, and one metabolite of pendimethalin metabolite; N-(1-ethylpropyl)-3-methyl-2, 6-diaminobenzine, was detected in the B. cereus culture. Generally, the result indicates the potential capability of these microorganisms in complete mineralization of endosulfan and pendimethalin. Based on half-lives, the efficiency of bacterial strains can be ordered as follows: B. subtilis > B. cereus > B. safensis for endosulfan and B. cereus > B. safensis > B. subtilis for pendimethalin.


Biodegradation Endosulfan Isolation and identification Pesticide-contaminated soils Pendimethalin 



The authors would like to thank Mr. Adam Ali Mohamed and Mr. Salah of the National Chemical Laboratories, Federal Ministry of Health, Sudan, for their help with GC–MS analysis. The financial support made available by the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Sudan, is highly acknowledged. The Korean Macrogen Company and Kangwon National University (KNU) were greatly acknowledged for their help with the identification of bacterial isolates by Molecular Biotechnology tools.

Supplementary material

13765_2017_281_MOESM1_ESM.docx (291 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 291 kb)


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Copyright information

© The Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abd Elaziz Sulieman Ahmed Ishag
    • 1
  • Azhari Omer Abdelbagi
    • 1
  • Ahmed Mohammed Ali Hammad
    • 1
  • Elsiddig Ahmed Elmustafa Elsheikh
    • 2
  • Osama Elgilani Elsaid
    • 3
  • Jang-Hyun Hur
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Crop Protection, Faculty of AgricultureUniversity of KhartoumShambatSudan
  2. 2.Department of Soil and Environment, Faculty of AgricultureUniversity of KhartoumShambatSudan
  3. 3.Faculty of Agricultural Technology and Fish SciencesAl Neelain UniversityKhartoumSudan
  4. 4.Department of Biological Environment, College of Agriculture and Life SciencesKangwon National UniversityChuncheonRepublic of Korea

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