Over the past few decades, livestock production has undergone an industrial revolution, resulting in the large-scale generation of livestock manure. Livestock manure has many beneficial nutrients, which can improve agricultural crop production, and is an organic alternative to chemical fertilizers. Livestock manure requires proper treatment before application to agricultural land, because it contains toxic heavy metals and pathogenic microorganisms. When improperly treated, stored or used, livestock manure can pollute rivers, soil ecosystems, and underground drinking water, thereby affecting all living organisms nearby. In this article, we illustrate the land applications and environmental risks associated with the use of livestock manure.
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R. R. Kumar and B. J. Park contributed equally.
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Kumar, R.R., Park, B.J. & Cho, J.Y. Application and environmental risks of livestock manure. J Korean Soc Appl Biol Chem 56, 497–503 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13765-013-3184-8
- environmental risks
- heavy metals
- pathogenic microorganisms
- livestock manure
- organic fertilizer