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Seasonal variability of mixed layer depth in the Andaman Sea

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The mixed layer depth is directly affected by natural processes in the atmosphere. Mixed layer depth in the Andaman Sea was analyzed based on salinity data from the 3-dimensional model from the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service. Seasonal signals are formed to identify the number of mixed layer depth seasons in a year. Wind, precipitation, temperature, and salinity performance analysis were performed using a monthly average value for 26 years. Based on the results, mixed layer depth differences in the Andaman Sea are influenced by wind and precipitation. The wind has a direct impact on mixed layer depth. The wind strength affects simultaneously as mixed layer depth conditions. Precipitation shows an indirect impact on mixed layer depth. Precipitation takes time to accumulate effect to change the state of mixed layer depth. The time required for precipitation is two months before the change in the mixed layer depth occurs. The mixed layer depth has two seasons annually, and the more significant season occurs in April as the lowest point and July as the deepest point. In the other season, October has a moderately shallow depth, and January has a moderately deep depth. The average differences in temperature and salinity in the surface layer and the mixed layer were 0.1266 °C and 0.2477 practical salinity units.

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We thank the European Union space strategy serves the public for providing Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS) data (

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The authors would like to express gratitude to Universitas Syiah Kuala for financial assistance in terms of ‘Penelitian Program Riset Unggulan Universitas Syiah Kuala Percepatan Doktor,’ under contract number: 300/UN11.2/PP/PNPB/SP3/2019, and ‘Penelitian Profesor,’ under contract number: 40/UN11.2 /PP/PNPB/SP3/2019.

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Correspondence to S. Rizal.

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We confirm that this work is original and has not been published elsewhere nor is it currently under consideration for publication elsewhere. We declare that there is no conflict of interest to the publication of this article.

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This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

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Editorial responsibility: Samareh Mirkia.

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Ikhwan, M., Haditiar, Y., Wafdan, R. et al. Seasonal variability of mixed layer depth in the Andaman Sea. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol. 19, 12437–12446 (2022).

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