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Measurements of surface ozone and its precursors in different microenvironments of coastal Indian metropolis of Mumbai


Measurements of surface ozone (O3) and its precursors (oxides of nitrogen (NOx)), carbon monoxide (CO), and volatile organic compounds (VOC) have been carried out over a coastal city Mumbai (19.07° N, 72.87° E), from January 2016 to December 2017. This study aimed to understand the diurnal and seasonal variation of O3, NOx, CO, and VOC and meteorological parameters at different city micro-environments. During the observation period, O3, NOx, CO, and VOC concentrations were high in the winter season, and the lowest was observed during the monsoon season over all the types of microenvironments. At all sites, the concentration of O3 was found to increase from 10:00 h and peaked between12:00 and 15:00 h; after that, it gradually decreased. In contrast, NOx depicts a reverse pattern, and the amplitude of diurnal variation was the least in the monsoon month. A high level of O3 was observed at the coastal backgrounds site, whereas the minimum level was found in the heavy traffic area. O3 concentrations were positively correlated with CO, NOx, and VOC. The inverse relation observed between O3 and relative humidity and wind speed indicated that the major photochemical paths for removal of O3 become effective in higher humid conditions, and high wind speed disperses the pollutants. The rate of change of O3 [d(O3)/dt] was highest during the winter season and lowest in the monsoon overall microenvironments. This distribution of O3 and precursors can be used for the implementation of emission control policies in megacities.

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The datasets used and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

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The authors are grateful to the Director, Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune, for the encouragement and support given to carry out this work. The authors also extend thanks to SAFAR for the data generation that has been used in this work.


This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

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Correspondence to N. Korhale.

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The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

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Editorial responsibility: Ta Yeong Wu.

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Korhale, N., Anand, V., Panicker, A. et al. Measurements of surface ozone and its precursors in different microenvironments of coastal Indian metropolis of Mumbai. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2022).

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  • Photochemical
  • Meteorology
  • Tropical
  • Emissions
  • Pollution