Skip to main content

Assessment of PM2.5, TVOCs, comfort parameters, and volatile organic solvents of paint at carpenter workshop and exposure to residential houses in Deir Ballout in Palestine


Volatile organic compounds emitted from their manufacturing have a high recycling value but contribute negatively to the environment. Paints as a significant source of volatile organic compounds could largely contribute to their emissions. This study employed four different locations close to a carpenter workshop where they make furniture and spray them with paint. The four locations (H1, H2, H3 and S1) are within a short distance from the workshop. Several analyses were performed including comfortable parameters (temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, ozone and nitrogen dioxide) from a paint packaging workshop. Besides that some selected volatile organic compounds in paint which was used for spraying the furniture were measured. Total volatile organic compounds for both indoor and outdoor were determined. The particulate matter at indoor and outdoor was also determined for the whole locations. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry and portable devices were used for our study. Both total volatile organic compounds and particulate matter gave very high results above the allowable concentrations. Some comfortable parameters also detected with unacceptable concentrations.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9



Volatile organic compounds


Total volatile organic compounds

CO2 :

Carbon dioxide


Carbon monoxide

NO2 :

Nitrogen dioxide


Relative humidity





PM2.5 :

Particulate matter


  1. ASHRAE (2013) Standard 62, 1, 2016 for the ventilation for acceptable indoor air quality

  2. Alleson I, Levin J, Brenner S, Al Hmaidi M (2013) Peace and pollution: an examination of Palestinian-Israeli trans-boundary hazardous waste management 20 years after the Oslo peace accors. J Peacebuild Dev.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Bekhta P, Krystofiak T, Proszyk S, Lis B (2018) Adhesion strength of thermally compressed and varnished wood (TCW) substrate. Prog Org Coat 125:331–338

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Branco P, Alvim-Ferraz M, Martins F, Sousa S (2015) Children's exposure to indoor air in urban nurseries-part I: CO2 and comfort assessment. Environ Res 140:1–9

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Bruno P, Caputi M, Caselli M, De Gennaro G, De Rienzo M (2005) Reliability of a BTEX radial diffusive sampler for thermal desorption: field measurements. Atmos Environ 39(7):1347–1355

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Butte W, Heinzow B (2002) Pollutants in house dust as indicators of indoor contamination. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 175:1–46

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Castaño BP, Ramírez V, Cancelado JA (2019) Controlling painters’ exposure to volatile organic solvents in the automotive sector of southern Colombia. Safety and Health at Work

  8. Chung C-W, Morandi MT, Stock TH, Afshar M (1999) Evaluation of a passive sampler for volatile organic compounds at ppb concentrations, varying temperatures, and humidities with 24-h exposures. 2. Sampler performance. Environ Sci Technol 33(20):3666–3671

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Consortium HOAR (2002) Health implications of animal hoarding. Health Soc Work 27(2):125–136

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. de Gennaro G, Farella G, Marzocca A, Mazzone A, Tutino M (2013) Indoor and outdoor monitoring of volatile organic compounds in school buildings: Indicators based on health risk assessment to single out critical issues. Int J Environ Res Public Health 10(12):6273–6291

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Ebisu K, Malig B, Hasheminassab S, Sioutas C, Basu R (2018) Cause-specific stillbirth and exposure to chemical constituents and sources of fine particulate matter Cause-specific stillbirth and exposure to chemical constituents and sources of fine particulate matter. Environ Res 160:358–364

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Habil M, Massey DD, Taneja A (2013) Exposure of children studying in schools of India to PM levels and metal contamination: sources and their identification. Air Qual Atmos Health 6(3):575–587

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Harb P, Locoge N, Thevenet F (2018) Emissions and treatment of VOCs emitted from wood-based construction materials: Impact on indoor air quality. Chem Eng J 354:641–652

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Heseltine E, Rosen J (2009). WHO guidelines for indoor air quality: dampness and mould. WHO Regional Office Europe

  15. Hu R, Liu G, Zhang H, Xue H, Wang X (2018) Levels, characteristics and health risk assessment of VOCs in different functional zones of Hefei. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 160:301–307

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Jodeh S, Hasan AR, Amarah J, Judeh F, Salghi R, Lgaz H, Jodeh W (2018) Indoor and outdoor air quality analysis for the city of Nablus in Palestine: seasonal trends of PM10, PM5.0, PM2.5, and PM1.0 of residential homes. Air Qual Atmos Health 11(2):229–237

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Lei Z, Liu C, Wang L, Li N (2017) Effect of natural ventilation on indoor air quality and thermal comfort in dormitory during winter. Build Environ 125:240–247

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Li C, Fu J, Sheng G, Bi X, Hao Y, Wang X, Mai B (2005) Vertical distribution of PAHs in the indoor and outdoor PM2. 5 in Guangzhou, China. Build Environ 40(3):329–341

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Maertens RM, Bailey J, White PA (2004) The mutagenic hazards of settled house dust: a review. Mutat Res Rev Mutat Res 567(2–3):401–425

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Missia DA, Demetriou E, Michael N, Tolis E, Bartzis JG (2010) Indoor exposure from building materials: a field study. Atmos Environ 44(35):4388–4395

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Mølhave L, Clausen G, Berglund B, De Ceaurriz J, Kettrup A, Lindvall T, Maroni M, Pickering A, Risse U, Rothweiler H (1997) Total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) in indoor air quality investigations. Indoor Air 7(4):225–240

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Ruan T, Rim D (2019) Indoor air pollution in office buildings in mega-cities: effects of filtration efficiency and outdoor air ventilation rates. Sustain Cities Soc 49:101609

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Ruiz-Jimenez J, Zanca N, Lan H, Jussila M, Hartonen K, Riekkola M-L (2019) Aerial drone as a carrier for miniaturized air sampling systems. J Chromatogr A 1597:202–208

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Saingam P, Baig Z, Xu Y, Xi J (2018) Effect of ozone injection on the long-term performance and microbial community structure of a VOCs biofilter. J Environ Sci 69:133–140

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Tunga Salthammer T, Sibel Mentese S, Rainer Marutzky R (2010) Formaldehyde in the indoor environment. Chem Rev 110(4):2536–2572

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Sergi CM (2019) Dichloromethane—a paint stripper and plastic welding adhesive. In: Nriagu J (ed) Encyclopedia of environmental health, 2nd edn. Elsevier, Oxford, pp 87–90

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  27. Sun Y, Hou J, Cheng R, Sheng Y, Zhang X, Sundell J (2019) Indoor air quality, ventilation and their associations with sick building syndrome in Chinese homes. Energy Build 197:112–119

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Wei W, Mandin C, Ramalho O (2018) Influence of indoor environmental factors on mass transfer parameters and concentrations of semi-volatile organic compounds. Chemosphere 195:223–235

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Weschler CJ (2006) Ozone’s impact on public health: contributions from indoor exposures to ozone and products of ozone-initiated chemistry. Environ Health Perspect 114(10):1489–1496

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. World Health Organization (2006) WHO Air quality guidelines for particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide: global update 2005: summary of risk assessment. World Health Organization, Geneva

  31. Wolkoff P (2018) Indoor air humidity, air quality, and health: an overview. Int J Hyg Environ Health 221(3):376–390

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Wu T, Zhao H, Tesson S, Firoozabadi A (2019) Absolute adsorption of light hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide in shale rock and isolated kerogen. Fuel 235:855–867

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Yoon C, Lee K, Park D (2011) Indoor air quality differences between urban and rural preschools in Korea. Environ Sci Pollut Res 18(3):333–345

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


This project was financially supported by Al Maqdesi CAMPUS FRANCE 2018–2020 and the Palestine Ministry of High Education. The authors would like to thank both the department of chemistry at An-Najah National University and University of Reims in France.

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to S. Jodeh.

Additional information

Editorial responsibility: M. Abbaspour.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary file 1 (PDF 216 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Jodeh, S., Chakir, A., Massad, Y. et al. Assessment of PM2.5, TVOCs, comfort parameters, and volatile organic solvents of paint at carpenter workshop and exposure to residential houses in Deir Ballout in Palestine. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2020).

Download citation


  • Carpenter workshop
  • Volatile organic compound
  • Comfortable parameters
  • Particulate matters and paint